RELIGION > MY RELIGION SECTION EIGHT : MY HINDUISM > Non-English Words with their meanings


Non-English words with their meanings

Agiari—a Zoroastrian temple; Parsi place of fire-worship

Ahimsa—non-violence; love

Allah—a Muslim term for God

Ashram —a place for spiritual retirement; Gandhiji's colony of workers

Ashrama—one of the four stages in a man's life (student, householder, meditator in the forest, and wandering teacher), as enjoined by Hinduism



Bati—a thick bread

Bhatti—a. small open furnace

Bhagavat a Purana or devotional book containing the life-history of Lord Krishna and other ancient stories

Bhagavad Gita - Hindu scripture, often regarded as the New Testament of Hinduism

Bhajan— a religious service consisting of devotional songs; devotional song

Bhangi—a scavenger; an 'untouchable'

Brahmachari—one pledged to chastity; student

Brahmacharya—chastity; continence Brahman—God; Supreme Being

Brahmanathe highest Hindu caste, consisting of priests


Dharma —religious duty

Dharmayuddha—righteous war


Ezhavo—an outcaste of Malabar


Gayatri —Vedic prayer addressed to the Sun God

Gita—See Bhagavad Gita

Goshala—a dairy-, cattle farm

Guru—religious teacher




Itihasa—Ancient Hindu Book of History


Kali—a Hindu goddess of destruction; name of goddess Durga

Kalma a Muslim prayer formula

Karmayogi—religious person devoted to the path of action

Khuda—a Muslim term for God

Koran—a sacred book of Muslims


Lota—a small vessel for water


Mahabharata—a Hindu epic

Mandir—a Hindu temple

Mantra—a Vedic hymn or sacred prayer

Moksha—salvation; liberation


Nirvana—lit. extinction; extinction of desire; Buddhist conception of salvation


Pariah—an outcaste of the Tamils of South India

Phooka—process of inserting a rod or pipe into the re­productive organ of the cow and blowing air into it to make the cow yield its last drop of milk


Quran—See Koran


Rama—a Hindu incarnation of God; God

Ramanama—name of Rama or God

Ramayana—a Hindu epic, describing the life-history of King Rama

Rama Raj—Kingdom of Rama or God; the ideal political and social order



Sanatana—ancient; orthodox

Sanatani—one who follows the ancient faith

Satyagraha—lit. clinging to Truth; non-violent resistance to untruth

Satyagrahi—non-violent resister of untruth

Shastra—Hindu sacred book

Shivalingam—a stone idol or short pillar representing Shiva, a Hindu god

Shudra—the fourth or lowest Hindu caste consisting of manual labourers

Smriti—ancient book embodying Hindu law and tradition

Swadeshi—the duty to serve one's neighbours and there­fore to use articles produced by them only



Tapas, Tapasya—austerity


Upanishads—ancient philosophical treatises of Hinduism


Varna—social groups numbering four based on pursuit of hereditary occupations

Varna Dharma—specific duties of the different social groups

Varnashrama—four social groups and four stages of man's life

Varnashrama Dharma—specific duties of four social groups and of four stages of man's life

Vedas—earliest Hindu scriptures

Vishnu—a Hindu god


Yogi—one practising Yoga


Zend Avesta—scriptures of the Parsis or Zoroastrians