You are here:
PHILOSOPHY> THE MIND OF MAHATMA GANDHI > Chronology
Chronology
Year/Month
Date
Event
1869 Oct
2
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born of a Bania (Vaishya or trading caste) family at Porbunder, Kathiawar, the youngest of the three sons of Karamchand ALIAS Kaba Gandhi, prime Minister successively in Porbunder, Rajkot and Vankaner States, and his fourth wife Putlibai.
1876
Goes to Rajkot with parents; attend primary school there till twelfth year; is betrothed to Kasturbai, daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, merchant.
1881
Enters high school at Rajkot.
1883
Marries Kasturbai.
1884-85
Takes to meat-eating in secret, but abandons habit after about a year to avoid deceiving his parents.
1887
Passes matriculations examinations; joins Samaldas College at Bhavnagar (Kathiawar), but gives up studies at close of first term.
1888 Sept
4
Sails for England
Oct
28
Reaches London

Lives on vegetarian diet. Takes lessons in dancing and music for a short time, thinking they are necessary parts of a gentleman’s equipment
1889
Reads books on simple living and decides to reduce expenses by half; studies religious literature; reads Gita for first time and is deeply impressed.
1890
Cultivates contacts with vegetarian movement; for short while conducts vegetarian club.
June
passes London Matric
Sept
joins Vegetarian Society.
1891 June
10
Called to the Bar

12
Sails for India.
July
Reaches Bombay.
Nov
Applies for admission to Bombay High Court.
1892
struggles with legal practice at Rajkot and Bombay; later settles down at former place as legal draftsman.
1893 April
leaves for South Africa, being engaged by a Muslim firm for legal work
May-June

Experience colour bar in various forms; decides to remain and fight race prejudice.
1894 Aug

22
Founds Natal Indian Congress
Sept
Enrolled as Advocate of Supreme Court of Natal, being first Indian to be so enrolled. Studies religious literature including the Bible, the Koran and Tolstoy’s The kingdom of god is within you.
1895
Gets more committed to south African Indian cause. issues The Indian Franchise : An appeal to Every Briton in South Africa.
1896 July
Returns to India and starts agitation on behalf of south African Indians.
Aug
14
Publishes The Green Pamphlet at Rajkot, Tours Bombay, madras, Poona and Calcutta educating Indians in regard to grievances of south African Indians
Nov
30
Sails for South Africa with wife and children.
1897 Jan

13
20 Mobbed on landing at Durban by crowd excited by reports of his speeches in India on conditions of indentured Indian labour in South Africa.
20
Declines to prosecute assailants.
April
6
Submits long memorial to Chamberlain, secretary of State for colonies, regarding landing incidents, background.
Carries on programme of petitioning local and Imperial Authorities, as well as ofcommunicating with British and Indian public men regarding discriminatory laws.
1898-99
Represents to Indian National Congress, Colonial and Imperial authorities, against Locations and restrictions on Indian’s trading rights.
1899
Raises Indian Ambulance Corps in Boer War, which goes into action and is mentioned in dispatches; awarded war medal.
1990
Sends Dadabhai Naoroji draft resolution on South African Indian problem, for Congress session
1901 Oct
18
Sails for India
Dec
14
Reaches Rajkot via Porbunder.
27
Moves resolution on South Africa at congress
1902 Jan, 28 Feb
Visits Rangoon Stays for a month with Gokhale at Calcutta.
Returns to Rajkot, settles down to Practice.
July

1
Shifts to and sets up practice at Bombay
Nov
Is called to south Africa to champion Indian’s cause against anti-Asiatic legislation in Transvaal.
Dec
Arrives in Durban : leadsdelegation to chamberlain
1903
Enrolled as Attorney of Supreme Court of Transvaal; founds Transvaal British Indian Association.
Sends weekly statements regarding situation to Dadabhai Naoroji
June
Indian opinion commences publication
1904
Reads Ruskin’s Unto This Last: founds Phoenix Settlement near Durban (Natal); organizes hospital during outbreak of plague in Johannesburg; writes series of articles in Gujarati on dietetics which are later translated into English and published under the title Guide to Health.
1905
Opposes Bengal Partition, supports boycott of British goods. During Gokhale, Lajpat Rai deputation to Britain, appeals to Colonial statement to treat India, ‘an integral part of the Empire’, with consideration.
Leads deputation to Lord Selborne, British High Commissioner, concerning Transvaal Indian problem.
1906May
12
Support ‘home rule’ for India ‘ in the name of justice and for good of humanity’

27
Writes to brother, Lakshmidas, declaring disinterestedness in worldly possessions.
June-July

Raises Indian Stretcher-bearer Corps in Zulu Rebellion; takes vow of Brahmacharya for life.
Sept

11
Addresses mass meeting of Indian sat Johannesburg, which takes oath of passive resistance against newly promulgated Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance.
Oct,21 Nov 30

18
In England on deputation to present Indian’s case to Colonial Secretary
Dec.
Returns to South Africa.
1907 Jan- Feb.
Writes series of 8 articles in Gujarati on "Ethical Religion", published weekly in Indian Opinion and later, as a book
March
Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal Parliament. Indians hold protect meetings.
April
Sees smuts at Pretoria, acquaints him with resolutions adopted at mass meeting. Pledge, in Indian Opinion, opposition to‘ Black Act’.
May
‘Black Act’ receives royal assent
July
Address mass meeting opposing ‘Black Act’
Aug
Writes to Smuts criticising Registration Act, suggesting amendments.
Passive resistance, picketing of Permit Offices; defends passive resisters in court.
Dec
Smuts decides to prosecute Gandhiji
1908Jan
8
Asks Government for suspension of Registration act, offers voluntary registration.
10
Adopt word;‘ Satyagraha’ in place of ‘Passive Resistance’.
Sentenced to 2 months imprisonment for failure to leave Transvaal.
21
Agrees to settlement on basis of voluntary registration, if registration Act is repealed.
30
Summoned to see General Smuts at Pretoria and released, on reaching a compromise.
Feb
10
Nearly killed by Pathans who regard the compromise, under which Indians are expected to give their finger –prints voluntarily, as a betrayal of Indian interests; refuses to prosecute his assailants.
March-June
Negotiates with Smuts forfulfillment of promise of repeal of Act which Smuts denies;
July
Corresponding with Smuts released; Indians in mass meeting decide to refuse thumb impression and burn registration certificates
Aug
Declares use of violence ‘harmful, even useless to uproot British rule’ in India
Appeals to Smuts to repeal ‘Black Act’. Registration certificates burnt at meetings, passive resistance resumed
Sept
Royal assent is given to amended Registration Act.
Smuts refuses Indian terms for settlement
Oct
15
Arrested and sentenced sentenced to 2 months rigorous imprisonment
Dec
12
Released from VolksrustJail.
Indian National Congress adopts resolution on South Africa, criticizing the harsh, humiliating and cruel treatment of British Indians in South Africa as injurious to British Empire.
1909 Jan
16
Arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration certificate; on deportation, returned and is re-arrested, but released on bail.
20
Writes to press calling on Indians to prepare for final phase of struggle
Feb
25
Arrested at Volksrust; sentenced to 3 months
May
2
Transferred topretoria Central Jail
24
released.
June
21
Leaves with Haji Habib, on deputation to England to represent Indian case.
July
10
Arrives in London.
With the assistance of Lord Ampthill, works ceaselessly to educate influential British leaders, the public, and to move Imperial authorities.
Oct
1
Writes to Tolstoy regarding Passive Resistance movement.
Nov
9
The times reports failure of Gandhi Government negotiations on Transvaal laws.
10
Replies to Tolstoy, sends his biography by Doke.
13
Leaves England for South Africa Writes Hind Swaraj on board "s. s. Kildonan Castle"
30
Reaches South Africa
Dec
29
Congress at Lahore adopts resolution praising Indian’s struggle in South Africa, urging ban on indenture.
1910 April
4
Sends Tolstoy copy of Indians Home Rule, seeks comments
May
8
Tolstoy replies; question of passive Resistance of greatest importance not only for India but for humanity.
30
Founds Tolstoy Farm
Dec
4
Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy
1911 Jan
Communicates with Smuts regarding amendments to Immigrants’ Restrictions Bill; latter assures; no colour bar taint in laws
March
27
Interviews smuts atCape town
April
22
Smuts agrees to assurances demanded by Indians in reciprocation of suspension of Passive Resistance movement
May
3
Meets Smuts: ‘ProvisionalSettlement" arrived on Smuts’ promise of repeal of Asiatic Registration and Immigrations’ Restriction Acts’
June
24
Pledges loyalty to King-emperor on coronation
Dec
8
Invites Gokhale to South Africa
1912 March
16
Commends Gokhale’s attempts for abolition of indenture system
Sept
12
Phoenix Trust is set up
Oct
22
Accompanies Gokhale, on tour of South Africa, Laurenco Marques, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Gives up European dress and milk and restricts himself to diet of fresh and dried fruit.
1913Jan
18
Refers in Indian Opinion to the possibility of return home to India by mid-year.
March
14
Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle’s Supreme Court judgement.

30
Indians in mass meeting protest against Searle Judgement

April
12
In Indian opinion draws attention to new Immigration Bill’s failure to fulfill terms of Provisional Settlement of 1911.Kasturba decides to join passive Resistance struggle.
May
19
Warns Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief.
June
7
Idea of return to India deferred in view of stringent application of discriminatory laws and likely resumption of satyagraha
27
Express readiness for negotiations
Sept
13
Announces negotiation "proved abortive
15
Passive Resistance is revived
16
Kasturba is arrested
Oct
17
Visits Newcastle; urges indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of £3 tax. 3000 minor strike
24
proposes ‘March’ into Transvaal
28
March’ formNewcastle begins
30
Reaches Charlestown
Nov
3
Announces ‘March" into Transvaal to court arrest
5
Telephones Smuts seeking assurance of repeal of £ 3 tax
6
Leads ‘ Great March’
Arrested at Palmford
7
At Volksrust, released on bail; rejoin Marchers
8
Arrested at Standerton; released on recognizance; ‘March’ continues
9
Arrested at Teakworth, taken to Balfour
10
Takes ‘one meal a day’ pledge till repeal of tax
11
Sentenced, at Dundee, to 9 months’ rigorous imprisonment
13
Removed to Volksrust gaol
14
Sentenced to 3 months on fresh count at Volksrust
Dec
18
Released unconditionally; from time of release till settlement take only one meal a day and puts on indentured labourer’s dress.
1914 Jan
13,16
Interviews Smuts, submits proposals
22
Suspends satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
Fourteen day’s penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Farm
June
Indian Relief Act is passed
July
18
Sails for England, EN ROUTE to India
Aug
4
Reaches London.
Raises Indian Volunteer Corps
Oct
volunteer corps on duty
Dec
19
Sails for India
1915Jan
9
Reaches India.
Awarded Kaiser-I-Hind Gold Medal for Ambulance services
May
20
Founds Satyagraha Ashram (later known as Sabarmati Ashram, after the name of the river) at Ahmedabad
1915-16
Tours India and Burma, travelling 3rd class on the railways
1917
Successfully agitates against indentured Indian emigration; idea of making use of spinning-wheel to produce hand-made cloth on large scale takes root in his mind
April
Goes to Champaran (Bihar) to investigate conditions of labour in indigo plantations; arrested and later released; appointed by Bihar Government as member of committee set up t o inquire into ryots’ grievances.
1918 Jan-March
Takes up cause of textile labourers of Ahmedabad and fasts to secure amicable settlement of dispute; initiates satyagraha in Kaira District (Bombay) to secures suspension of revenue assessment on failure of crops
April
27
Attends Viceroy’s War Conference at Delhi and addresses it in Hindustani; subsequently tours Kaira District to raise recruits for army
1919Feb
28
Signs Satyagraha pledge to secure withdrawal of Rowlatt Bills.
April
6
inaugurates all-India satyagraha movement ; countrywide HARTAL
8-11
Arrested on way to Delhi for refusal to co, ply with order not to enter Punjab; escorted back to Bombay; outbreaks of violence in several towns.
13
Jallianwala Bagh tragedy at Amritsar, troops firing on an unarmed crowd and killing over 400. Addresses public meeting near Sabarmati Ashram and declares three day’s penitential fast
14
Confesses at Nadiad his 'Himalayan miscalculation’ regarding satyagraha martial law declared in Punjab.
18
Suspends satyagraha.
Sept
Assumes editorship of the Gujarati monthly, Navajivan, later published weekly in Hindi also
Oct
Assumes editorship of the English weekly, Young India; joins non-official committee of inquiry into official excesses in Punjab
Nov
24
presides over all-India Khilafat Conference at Delhi
Dec
Advises acceptance of Montague-Chelmsford Reforms by Congress at Amritsar.
1920Jan
Leads deputation to Viceroy to press on British Government not to deprive Sultan of Turkey (who was also Khalifa of Muslim) of his suzerainty over Holy Places of Islam.
Aug
1
Address letter to Viceroy surrendering Kaiser-I-Hind Medal, Zulu War Medal and Boer War Medal
Sept
Special session of Indian National Congress at Calcutta accepts his programme of non-co-operation to secure redress of Punjab and Khilafat wrongs
Nov
Founds Gujarat Vidyapeeth at Ahmedabad
Dec
Nagpur Congress session adopts his resolution declaring object of Congress to be attainment of Swaraj by the people of India by all legitimate and peacefully means
1921April
Launches programme of enlisting a crore of members in Congress, raising a crore of rupees for Tilak Swaraj fund and setting up 20 lakhs of charkhas in the country in furtherance of national constructive movement
Aug
Leads campaign for complete boycott of foreign cloth and light s monster bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay
Dec
Invested with full dictatorial powers by Congress session at Ahmedabad
1922Feb
1
Gives notice to Viceroy of Intention to launch satyagraha campaign in Bardoli (Gujarat).
5
Following Chauri Chaura (UP) tragedy, in which 21 police constables and one sub-inspector were burnt to death by a mob, fasts for five days and abandons plan of satyagraha movement
March
10
Arrested for sedition at Sabarmati and sentenced (march 18) to six years imprisonment.
1924Jan-Feb
Operated on for appendicitis in Sassoon Hospital, Poona (jan.12) and released on Feb.5.
April
Resumes editorship of Young India and Navajivan.
Sept
18
Begins 21 day’s fast for Hindu-Muslim unity.
Dec
Provides over Congress session at Belgaum.
1925Sept
Founds All-India Spinner’s Association
Nov
Seven days vicarious fast for misdeeds of Ashram inmates.
Commences writing his autobiography,'The story of my Experiments with Truth'.
1927Nov
Visits Ceylon
1928Dec
Moves resolution at Calcutta Congress session in favour of Independence if Dominion Status in not granted by end of 1929.
1929Dec
At his instance Lahore Congress session declares that Swaraj in Congress creed shall mean Purna Swaraj (complete independence).
1930Feb
Appointed by A.I.C.C. as Congress Dictator to launch Civil Disobedience movement.
March
2
Addresses letter to Victory intimating his intention to break Salt law if Congress demands are not conceded
12
Commences march to Dandi sea-beach, where he ceremoniously picks up salt (April 6).
May
5
Arrested and imprisoned without trial; HARTAL all over India; over 100,000 are jailed before close of year
1931Jan
26
Unconditionally released from prison
Feb-march
Has series of talks with Viceroy resulting in Irwin-Gandhi Pact
Aug
29
sails for England as sole Congress delegate to Second Round Table Conference.
Sept-Dec
Attends session of Conference
Dec
5
Leaves England for India
28
lands in Bombay
1932 Jan
4
Arrested and imprisoned without trial
Sept
20
commences ‘ fast unto death’ in jail to secure abolition of separate electorates for Harijans in communal Award
26
Breaks fast on Government of India’s acceptance of his demand regarding Harijans
1933 Feb,
11
Founds the weekly paper Harijan, published in English and Hindi
May
8
Commences at noon 21 days fast for self purification; released unconditionally at 9 p.m.
9
Announces suspension of Civil Disobedience movement for six weeks and calls on the Government to withdraw its Ordinances
29
Breaks fast.
July
26
Disbands Satyagraha Ashram
30
Informs Government of Bombay of his decision to March from Ahmedabad to Ras with 33 followers to revive Civil Disobedience Movement
31
Arrested and imprisoned without trial
Aug
4
Released and rearrested for breaking a restraint order
16
Goes on fast on being denied facilities to carry on anti-untouchability propaganda
23
Released unconditionally
Nov
7
commences Harijan-uplift tour
1934Sept
17
Announces decision to retire from politics from October 1 to engage himself in development of village industries, Harijan service and education through basic crafts
Oct
26
Inaugurates All-India Village Industries Association.
1936April
30
Settles down at Sevagram, a village near Wardha in the Central Provinces, making it his headquarters
1937Oct
22
Presides over Educational Conferences at Wardha and outlines his scheme of education through basis crafts
1939 March
3
Commences ‘fast unto death’ at Rajkot to secure Ruler’s adherence to promise given to reform administration, and ends it on March 7 on Viceroy’s intervention
1940 July&Sept
Meets viceroy by invitation in connection with war situation
Oct
Sanctions individual civil disobedience; suspends Harijan and allied weeklies following official demand for pre-censorship of reports and writing in Harijan on the subject of Satyagraha.
1941Dec
30
At his own request is relieved of his leadership of Congress by Working Committee.
1942Jan
18
Restarts Harijan and allied weeklies
March
27
Meets Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi; later declares Cripps proposals to be a ‘post-dated cheque’.
May
Appeals to British Government to quit India
Aug
8
Addresses A.I.C.C. session in Bombay on implication of Quit India resolution.
9
Arrested and interned in Agakhan’s palace at Poona
15
Death of Mahadev Desai, Gandhiji’s personal secretary, from heart failure, in Aga Khan’s palace
Aug-Dec
Corresponds with Viceroy and Government of India regarding disturbances
1943Feb
10
Commences 21 days fast, which he breaks on march 3
1944Feb
22
Kasturba Gandhi dies in Aga Khan palace
May
6
Released unconditionally
Sept
9-27
Carries on talks with M.A. Jinnah regarding Pakistan
Oct
2
Presentation of purse of 110lakhs of rupees (£ 8,25,000) for Kasturba Memorial on occasion of 75thbirthday
1945 April
17
In a statement regarding the ensuing San Francisco Conference says that peace is impossible without equality and freedom of India. Also demands a just peace for Germany and Japan.
Dec
19
Lays foundation stone of C.F. Andrews’ Memorial Hospital at Santiniketan.
1945-46Dec-Jan
Tour Bengal and Assam
1946 Jan& Feb
tours Southern India for anti-untouchability and Hindustani Propaganda.
Feb
10
Revives Harijan and allied group of weekly journals.
April
Participates in political talks with Cabinet Mission in Delhi
May
5-12
In Simla; Simla Conference in session; deliberations prove infructuous
16
Cabinet mission announces Plan
18-19
Discusses Plan with Cabinet mission
26
Considers Plan best document produced by British Government under circumstances.
June
6
In Mussoorie
7
Returns to Delhi.
10
Refuses to enthuse over Allied Victory as not being ‘Victory of truth over falsehood’.
11
Viceroy interviews Gandhiji, moots proposal of coalition Government at Centre
16
Cabinet Mission negotiations discontinued; Viceroy proposes Interim Government.
18
Congress Working Committee decides to accept interim Government scheme.
20-1
Attends Working Committee meeting. Gandhiji is seen by Cripps
23
Advices Congress not to enter Interim Government, but only Constituent Assembly
24
Meets Cabinet Mission
28
Leaves Delhi forPoona; attempts made to derail train EN ROUTE
July
7
Address A.I.C.C. meeting at Bombay; Congress accepts Cabinet Mission Plan of May 16.
31
Jinnah threatens sanctions of ‘Direct Action’
Aug
12
Viceroy announces invitation to Congress to form Provisional Government.
Aug
16-18
The ‘Great Calcutta Killing’
24
Viceroy Wavell broadcasts Plan
27
Gandhiji cables warning to British Government against repetition of ‘Bengal tragedy’; also writes to Wavell
Sept
4
Interim Government formed
26
Has interview with Wavell
Oct
9
Jinnah’s 9-point demands conveyed to Congress
10
Noakhali Massacre
15
Muslim League agrees to enter Interim Government
28
Leaves for Calcutta. Riots breaks out in Bihar
Nov
6
Leaves for Noakhali; issues statement on ‘Partial Fast’.

Noakhali tour begins.
20
Starts tour without party
Dec
20
Completes month-long sojourn at Srirampur
25
At Noakhali, says :"I am being tested through and through".
30
Jawaharlal Nehru calls on Gandhiji, who says: "my reason wholly supports my heart
1947 Jan
2
Says: "all around me is utter darkness".
Leaves Srirampur on walking tour
3-29
In Bihar, touring riot-affected areas
30
Leaves Patna for Delhi
April
1-2
Gandhiji addresses Asian Relation Conference in Delhi
15
Issues with Jinnah joint appeal for communal peace
29
In Bihar
May
1
Congress Working Committee accepts Partition in principle.
5
In interview, Gandhiji denies that communal division of India is inevitable
24
Leaves Bihar for Delhi
31
Declares peace must precede Partition, he would not be party to India’s vivisection.
June
2
Viceroy’s Partition plan revealed; Congress Working Committee conveys acceptance.
3
Indian leader broadcast on Mountbatten Plan
6
Gandhiji writes to Mountbatten, with Pakistan conceded to persuade Jinnah to amicable settle all outstanding points with Congress
12
Addresses Congress Working Committee
July
‘Independence of India Bill passed’
27
Appeals to Princes to regard people’s paramountcy as a privilege
August
14
Hails following day as one of rejoicing for deliverance from British bondage; but deplores partition. Pakistan is born
Aug
15
Hindu-Muslim fraternization in Calcutta
16
Hails ‘Miracle of Calcutta’
Sept
1
Considers Calcutta peace nine-days wonder, decides on fast
2
Is mobbed in Calcutta house ;gives up idea of Noakhali visit. Peace efforts intensified
4
Breaks fast
7
Leaves Calcutta for Delhi; commences daily visits to riot-raced areas.
24
Pakistan raiders invade Kashmir.
25
Kashmir accedes to Indian Union
26
Criticises Churchill's holocaust in India’ statement
Nov
1
Indian troops enter Junagadh
3
Junagadh accedes to India.
Address A.I.C.C
11
Defends Junagadh’s accession to India
Dec
25
Pleads for amicable settlement between India and Pakistan
30
India refers Kashmir dispute to U.N.
1948
12
Decides to fast for communal peace in Delhi; Mountbatten fails to dissuade Gandhiji.
15
Enters ‘danger zone’. Hails Indian Cabinet’s decision to release Pakistan dues of Rs. 550 million. Fast continues for establishment of communal peace.
17
Doctors warn fast must be ended. Central Peace Committee formed, decides on ‘Peace Pledge’
18
Peace Committee signs, presents ‘Peace Pledge’ to Gandhiji, who breaks fast.
20
Bomb explodes at prayer meeting
27
Visits Mehrauli Muslim Fair
29
Angry refugees ask Gandhiji to retire to the Himalayas
30
Drafts constitution of a Congress transformed into Lok Sevak Sangh. Is assassinated on way to evening prayer.