|1869||October||2||Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born of a Bania (Vaishya or trading caste) family at Porbunder, Kathiawar, the youngest of the three sons of Karamchand alias Kaba Gandhi, Prime Minister successively in Porbunder, Rajkot and Vankaner States, and his fourth wife Putlibai|
|1876||Goes to Rajkot with parents; attends primary school there till twelfth year; is betrothed to Kasturbai, daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, merchant.|
|1881||Enters High School at Rajkot|
|1884-85||Takes to meat-eating in secret, but abandons habit after about a year to avoid deceiving his parents.|
Father dies, aged 63.
|1887||Passes Matriculation examination; joins Samaldas College at Bhavnagar (Kathiawar), but gives up studies at close of first term.|
|1888||September||4||Sails for England.|
Lives on vegetarian diet. Takes lessons in dancing and music for a short time, thinking they are necessary parts of a gentlemans equipment.
|1889||Reads books on simple living and decides to reduce expenses by half; studies religious literature; reads Gita for first time and is deeply impressed|
|1890||Cultivates contacts with vegetarian movement; for short while conducts vegetarian club.|
|June||Passes London Matric.|
|September||Joins Vegetarian Society.|
|1891||June||10||Called to the Bar.|
|12||Sails for India.|
|November||Applies for admission to Bombay High Court.|
|1892||Struggles with legal practice at Rajkot and Bombay; later settles down at former place as legal draftman.|
|1893||April||Leaves for South Africa, being engaged by a Muslim firm for legal work.|
|May-June||Experiences colour bar in various forms; decides to remain and fight race prejudice.|
|1894||August||22||Founds Natal Indian Congress.|
|September||Enrolled as Advocate of Supreme Court of Natal, being first Indian to be so enrolled.Studies religious literature including the Bible, he Koran and Tolstoys The Kingdom of God is Within You.|
|1895||Gets more committed to South African Indian cause. Issues The Indian Franchise: An Appeal to Every Briton in South Africa.|
|1896||July||Returns to India and starts agitation on behalf of South African Indians.|
|August||14||Publishes The Green Pamphlet at Rajkot.|
Tours Bombay, Madras, Poona and Calcutta educating Indians in regard to grievances of South African Indians.
|November||30||Sails for South Africa with wife and children.|
|1897||January||13||Mobbed on landing at Durban by crowd excited by reports of his speeches in India on conditions of indentured Indian labour in South Africa.|
|20||Declines to prosecute assailants.|
|April||6||Submits long memorial to Chamberlain, Secretary of State for Colonies, regarding landing incidents, background. |
Carries on programme of petitioning local and Imperial authorities, as well as of communicating with British and Indian public men regarding discriminatory laws.
|1898-99||Represents to Indian National Congress, Colonial and Imperial authorities, against Locations and restrictions on Indians trading rights.|
|1899||Raises Indian Ambulance Corps in Boer War, which goes into action and is mentioned in dispatches; awarded war medal.|
|1900||Sends Dadabhai Naoroji draft resolution on South African Indian problem for Congress session.|
|1901||October||18||Sails for India.|
|December||14||Reaches Rajkot via Porbunder.|
|27||Moves resolution on South Africa at Congress.|
Stays for a month with Gokhale at Calcutta.
Returns to Rajkot, settees down to practise.
|Shifts to and sets up practice at Bombay.|
|November||Is called to South Africa to champion Indians cause against anti-Asiatic legislation in Transvaal.|
|December||Arrives in Durban: leads delegation to Chamberlain.|
|1903||Enrolled as Attorney of Supreme Court of Transvaal; founds Transvaal British Indian Association.|
Sends weekly statements regarding situation to Dadabhai Naoroji.
|June||Indian Opinion commences publication.|
|1904||Reads Ruskins Unto This Last : founds Phoenix Settlement near Durban (Natal); organizes hospital during outbreak of plague in Johannesburg; writes series of articles in Gujarati on dietetics which are later translated into English and published under the title Guide to Health.|
|1905||Opposes Bengal Partition, supports boycott of British goods. During Gokhale- Lajpat Rai deputation to Britain, appeals to Colonial statesmen to treat India, an integral part of the Empire, with consideration.|
|1906||May||12||Support home rule for India I the name of justice and for good of humanity.|
|27||Writes to brother, Lakshimidas, declaring disinterestedness in worldly possessions.|
|June-July||Raises Indian Stretcher-bearer Corps in Zulu Rebellion; takes vow of brahmacharya for life.|
|Sept||11||Addresses mass meeting of Indians at Johannesburg, which takes oath of passive resistance against newly promulgated Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance.|
|Oct 21-Nov||30||In England on deputation to present Indians case to Colonial Secretary.|
|December||18||Returns to South Africa|
|1907||Jan-Feb||Writes series of 8 articles in Gujarati on "Ethical Religion", published weekly in Indian Opinion and later, as a book.|
|March||Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal Parliament. Indians hold protest meetings.|
|April||Sees Smuts at Pretoria, acquaints him with resolutions adopted at mass meetings. Pledges, in Indian Opinion, opposition to Black Act.|
|August||Writes to Smuts criticizing Registration Act, suggesting amendments.|
Passive resistance, picketing of Permit Offices; defends passive resisters in court.
|December||Smuts decides to prosecute Gandhiji.|
|1908||January||8||Asks Government for suspension of Registration Act, offers voluntary registration.|
|10||Adopts word : Satyagraha in place of Passive Resistance.|
Sentenced to 2 months imprisonment for failure to leave Transvaal.
|21||Agrees to settlement on basis of voluntary registration, if Registration Act is repealed.|
|30||Summoned to see General Smuts at Pretoria and released, on reaching a compromise.|
|February||10||Nearly killed by Pathans who regard the compromise, under which Indians are expected to give their finger-prints voluntarily, as a betrayal of Indian interest; refuses to prosecute his assailants.|
|March-June||Negotiates with Smuts for fulfillment of promise of repeal of Act which Smuts denies.|
|July||Correspondence with Smuts released; Indians in mass meeting decide to refuse thumb impressions and burn registration certificates.|
|August||Declares use of violence harmful, even useless to uproot British rule in India.|
Appeals to Smuts to repeal Black Act.
Registration certificates burnt at meetings; passive resistance resumed.
|September||Royal assent is given to amended Registration Act.|
Smuts refuses Indian terms for settlement.
|October||15||Arrested and sentenced to 2 months rigorous imprisonment.|
|December||12||Released from Volksrust Gaol|
Indian National Congress adopts resolution on South Africa, criticizing the harsh, humiliating and cruel treatment of British Indians in South Africa as injurious to British Empire.
|1909||January||16||Arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration certificate; on deportation, returned and is re-arrested, but released on bail.|
|20||Writes to Press calling on Indians to prepare for final phase of struggle.|
|February||25||Arrested at Volksrust; sentenced to 3 months.|
|May||2||Transferred to Pretoria Central Gaol.|
|June||21||Leaves with Haji Habib, on deputation to England to represent Indian case.|
|July||10||Arrives in London.|
With the assistance of Lord Ampthill, works ceaselessly to educate influential British leaders, the public, and to move Imperial authorities.
|October||1||Writes to Tolstoy regarding Passive Resistance movement.|
|November||9||The Times reports failure of Gandhi Government negotiations on Transvaal laws.|
|10||Replies to Tolstoy, sends his biography by Doke.|
|13||Leaves England for South Africa. Writes Hind Swaraj on board "s. s. Kildonan Castle".|
|30||Reaches South Africa.|
|December||29||Congress at Lahore adopts resolution praising Indians struggle in South Africa, urging ban on indenture.|
|1910||April||4||Sends Tolstoy copy of Indian Home Rule, seeks comment.|
|May||8||Tolstoy replies: question of Passive Resistance of greatest importance not only for India but for humanity.|
|30||Founds Tolstoy Farm.|
|December||4||Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy.|
|1911||January||Communicates with Smuts regarding amendments to Immigrants Restriction Bill; latter assures; no colour bar taint in laws.|
|March||27||Interviews Smuts at Cape town.|
|April||22||Smuts agrees to assurances demanded by Indians in reciprocation of suspension of Passive Resistance movement.|
|May||3||Meets Smuts: Provisional Settlement arrived on Smuts promise of repeal of Asiatic Registration and Immigrants Restriction Acts.|
|June||24||Pledges loyalty to King-Emperor on coronation.|
|December||8||Invites Gokhale to South Africa|