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THE SELECTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI > Vol. V - THE VOICE OF TRUTH > Glossary

Glossary

Advaita

: monism; non-duality or identity of the soul with Brahman

Advaitism

: doctrine of non-duality

Advaitist

: a believer in non-duality

Ahimsa

: non-violence; love

Ananda

: Joy; bliss

Anekantavadi

: a believer in many-sidedness of Reality

Aparigraha

: non-possession

Ashrama

: one of the four stages of life according to Hinduism; a hermitage; a place for disciplined community living

Asteya

: non-stealing

Atman

: spirit; soul

Avatar

: incarnation

Bhajan

: a religious song

Bhakti

: devotion

Bhaktiyoga

: the path of devotion

Bhangi

: a sweeper, a scavenger

Brahma

: the Divine Reality; the Universal Spirit

Brahmachari

: a celibate

Brahmacharya

: celibacy; pursuit in quest of god

Chapati

: thin flat cake made of flour; unleavened bread

Charkha

: a spinning wheel

Chit

: Knowledge

Daridranarayan

: God in the form of poor

Dharma

: religion; Duty

Dvaitism

: doctrine of duality

Ganja

: narcotic from the flower of Indian hemp

Goonda

: hooligan

Goondaism

: hooliganism

Guru

: a teacher, a spiritual guide

Harijans

: literally, the people of Hari, i.e. God; the name which Gandhiji gave to untouchables

Hathayoga

: a system of yoga in which the exercises of physical postures, poses and breathing are chiefly treated to discipline body and mind towards self-realization

Hijarat

: exodus or going away from one’s native land

Himsa

: violence

Jam-i-Jam

: universal provider

Kalma

: basic Muslim prayer

Kalpadruma

: a tree supposed to grant all desires

Kamadhenu

: the cow of plenty, supposed to fulfill all desires

Kanyadana

: giving away of daughter in marriage

Karma

: action

Khaddar, Khadi

: hand-spun and hand-woven cloth

Kisan

: peasant

Mahatma

: a great soul

Mantra

: a sacred formula, a sacred text used for repetition and meditation, a sacred incantation

Moksha

: salvation; freedom from birth and death

Mukti

: salvation

Namaz

: Muslim prayer

Neti, Neti

: not this, not this

Nirvana

: state of salvation, i.e., of absolute bliss & calm according to Buddihist thought

Niyamas

: rules; observances

Pancha

: arbitrator

Panchama

: one belonging to fifth caste, an outcaste

Panchayat

: village council consisting of five persons elected by the people

Panchayat Raj

: administration through Panchayat, i.e. the people

Pariah

: an outcaste

Purna Swaraj

: complete independence

Raj

: kingdom ; administration

Ramanama

: name of Rama—incarnation of God in Hindu religion, recitation of God’s name

Rama Raj

: Kingdom of Rama, beneficent rule

Rishi

: a seer

Sadavrata

: a place where free meals are served

Sadhana

: striving; practice, persistent effort

Samadhi

: state of ecstasy

Sat

: truth; that which exists

Satya

: truth

Satyagraha

: literally, holding on the truth; truth-force or soul-force

Satyagrahi

: one who practices Satyagraha

Savarna

: belonging to one of the four castes

Shastra

: a scripture

Sthitaprajna

: a man of steady wisdom

Swadeshi

: literally of one’s own country; insistence on the use of goods made in one’s own country, preferably hand-made and those too of the neighbours first

Swaraj

: self-government, home rule, independence

Syadvad

: the doctrine of “May be” in Jaina philosophy; an assertion of probability (in philosophy)

Syadvadi

: a believer in Syadvad

Tabligh

: religious propaganda and conversion

Tapas

: penance; religious austerity

Tapasya

: austerity, penance or asceticism

Upanishadas

: ancient philosophical writings of the Hindus

Vaishnava

: a devotee of Vishnu

Varna

: occupational division of Hindu society

Varnadharma

: duty enjoined by caste rules

Varnashrama

: four divisions of society according to occupations and of life into four stages, viz., student’s, householder’s, forest dweller’s and that of a recluse

Vedas

: scriptures of the Hindus

Yajna

: a sacrifice

Yogi

: one practicing religious discipline; an ascetic

Zamindar

: a landlord