ONLINE BOOKS > THE MAKING OF A SOCIAL REFORMER : GANDHI IN SOUTH AFRICA, 1893-1914Bibliography
 

Bibliography

Primary, Printed Sources, & Newspapers

India

National Archives, Gandhi Archives, Museums, and Libraries in India

At the National Archives of India in New Delhi, we consulted the Guide to the Records in the National Archives, New Delhi, 1980. This guide listed eight categories of records, among them the records of the following departments: Home, Revenue, Foreign, and Agriculture. Each one of these had an index. The Home and Foreign department records had a few relevant records. In the first we examined the following years: 1858-64, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1871-75, 1876-80, 1872, 1873, 1875, 1905, 1911, and 1914. In the Foreign department series, we examined selectively from 1875 to 1913, but found little that was directly relevant to our study.  However, there was some very useful information in the Private Archives section in the following sets of papers: Gandhi-Kallenbach Papers, Gandhi-Polak Papers, Gokhale Papers, Pyarelal Papers, and C.F. Andrews Papers.

At the National Gandhi Museum and Library in New Delhi, we searched through the card index of letters to Gandhi. In addition, we examined the new material presented in the most recent publications of the Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. The last seven supplementary volumes appeared between 1989 and 1994. Volume 96 was relevant to our study as it contained additional correspondence between Gandhi and Kallenbach.  In volume 65, there is reference to his discovery in South Africa of selfless service as "spiritual sadhana."

At the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, otherwise known as the Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya, we worked from a 40-page prepared list of material given to us by Mr. E. S. Reddy, and found at least a dozen letters that were relevant to our study. We also looked through SN (Serial Number) items of Gandhi’s newspaper cuttings, which showed how meticulously he kept track of events while in South Africa.


South Africa

At the Natal Archives Repository (NAR) in Pietermaritzburg, we searched through the several groups of sources with mixed results.  Indian Immigration (II) did not have many direct references to cultural and religious events. The focus in official records was rather on health, criminal behavior, assaults, desertions, malingering, drunk and disorderly conduct, withholding of rations and wages, cruelty, murder trials, suicide, requests for passes, and depositions of various other kinds. There were numerous cases of abuses by owners, and workers who took the initiative to file complaints especially during the 1900s.  We found some useful material in the Colonial Secretary's Office (CSO) seriesA search in Secretary of Native Affairs (SNA) series revealed over 30 instances of Indo-African relations.

We also consulted the following series at the NAR: Surveyor General's Office (SGO), Attorney General's Office (AGO), Chief Native Commissioner (CNC), Immigration Restrictions Department (IRD), Natal Government Railways (NGR), and a variety of others like 1/EPI (Magistrate and Commissioners, Empangeni), 1/LDS (Magistrates and Commissioners, Ladysmith), MJPW (Minister of Justice and Public Works), 3/PMB (Pietermaritzburg), PWD (Public Works Department), DPH (Department of Public Health), PVS (Principal Veterinary Surgeon), NT (Natal Treasury), and NHD (Natal Harbour Department). Printed sources consulted for this study included the Protector's Reports from the 1880s to 1911, Blue Books and their successors Statistical Year Books.   

There were several important sources which provided a lens to Indian cultural and religious life. At the Durban Local History Museum, we found some excellent photographs that illustrated dress and attire for the early period. We found photographs and assorted documents as they related to cultural and religious organizations at the Gandhi-Luthuli Centre (formerly Documentation Centre) at University of Durban-Westville. The vernacular sections of Indian Opinion and African Chronicle provided rich material on culture and religion.   


Secondary

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  2. Asad, Majda, Indian Muslim Festivals and Customs, New Delhi: Publication Division, Ministry of Information, Government of India, 1988. 

  3. Atkins, Keletso, The Moon is Dead! Give Us Our Money!: The Cultural Origins of an African Work Ethic, Natal, South Africa, 1843-1900, Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1993. 

  4. Badassy, Prinisha, Turban and Top Hats: Indian Interpreters in the Colony of Natal, 1880-1910, Honors Thesis, University of Natal, 2002. 

  5. Beall, J. D. and D. North-Coombes, The 1913 Disturbances in Natal: The Social and Economic Background to Passive Resistance, Journal of Natal and Zulu History 6(1983):48-81. 

  6. Bhana, Surendra (ed), Essays on Indentured Indians in Natal, Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1991. 

  7. Bhana, Surendra, Gandhi's Legacy: The Natal Indian Congress, 1894-1994, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1997. 

  8. Bhana, Surendra and B. Pachai (eds), A Documentary History of Indian South Africans, 1860-1982, Cape Town: David Philip, 1984. 

  9. Bhana, Surendra and J.B. Brain, Setting Down Roots: Indian Migrants in South Africa, 1860-1911, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1990. 

  10. Bose, Nirmal Kumar, My Days with Gandhi, New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1974.  

  11. Bose, Sugata and Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy, New York/London: Routledge, 1998. 

  12. Britton, Burnett, Gandhi Comes to South Africa, Canton, Maine: Greenleaf Books, 1999.  

  13. Brown, Judith M. and Martin Prozesky, (eds), Gandhi and South Africa: Principles and Politics, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1996. 

  14. Burton, Antoinett,  At the Heart of Empire: Indians and the Colonial Rule Encounter in Late Victorian Britain, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. 

  15. Chada, Yogesh, Gandhi: A Life, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

  16. Chatterjee, Margaret, Gandhi and His Jewish Friends, London: Macmillan, 1992.  

  17. Chatterjee, Margaret, Gandhi's Religious Thought, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. 

  18. Dalton, Dennis, Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993 

  19. Desai, Ashwin, Vishnu Padayachee, Krish Reddy, and Goolam Vahed, Blacks in Whites: A Century of Cricket Struggles in KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 2002. 

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  21. Diesel, Alleyn and Patrick Maxwell, Hinduism in Natal: A Brief Guide, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1993. 

  22. Doke, Joseph J., Gandhi: An Indian Patriot in South Africa, 1909. 

  23. Duminy, Andrew and Bill Guest (eds), Natal and Zululand: From Earliest Times to 1910: A New History, Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 1989. 

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  25. Fuller, C.J., The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.  

  26. Gandhi, Arun and Sunanada Gandhi, The Forgotten Woman: The Untold Story of Kastur, Wife of Mahatma Gandhi, Huntsville, Arkansas: Zark Mountain Publishers, 1998. 

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  28. Gandhi, Manubehn, Bapu, My Mother, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1949. 

  29. Gandhi, Manilal, "Memories of Gandhiji," Indian Review (March 1952).  

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  31. Gandhi, M.K., Hindu Dharma, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1950. 

  32. Gandhi, M.K., Satyagraha in South Africa, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1928.  

  33. Gandhi, M.K., The Story of My Experiments with Truth, Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.  

  34. Gandhi, Prabhudas Chhaganlal, Jivan-nu Parod, Ahmedbad: Navajivan, 1948.  

  35. Gandhi, Rajmohan, The Good Boatman: A Portrait of Gandhi, New Delhi: Viking, 1995.  

  36. Gandhi, Rajmohan, Eight Lives: A Study of Hindu-Muslim Encounter, New York: State University of New York, 1986.  

  37. Golden Number of Indian Opinion: Souvenir of the Passive Resistance Movement in South Africa, 1906-1914, Phoenix, Durban, 1914. 

  38. Govinden, Herby S., “The Anglican Church among Indians in KwaZulu-Natal,” M.A. Thesis, University of Durban-Westville, December 2002. 

  39. Gupta, Shiv Kumar, Arya Samaj and the Raj, 1875-1920, New Delhi: Gitanjali Publishing House, 1991. 

  40. Hasan, Mushirul, Nationalism and Communal Politics in India, 1916-1928, Columbia, MO: South Asia Books, 1979. 

  41. Hughes, Heather, Politics in Inanda, Natal: Qadi under Chief Mqhawe, c. 1840-1906, Doctoral Thesis, University of London, 1995.    

  42. Hunt, James D., Gandhi and the Nonconformists: Encounters in South Africa, New Delhi: Promilla & Co., 1986.   

  43. Hunt, James D., Gandhi in London, revised ed., Springfield, VA: Nataraj Books, 1993.  

  44. Kumar, P. Pratap, Hindus in South Africa: Their Traditions and Beliefs, Durban, 2000. 

  45. Lambert, John, Betrayed Trust: Africans and the State in Colonial Natal, Pietermaritzburg, University of Natal Press, 1995. 

  46. Mamdani, Mahmood, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and Genocide in Rwanda, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001. 

  47. Meer, Fatima Apprenticeship of a Mahatma, Durban: Phoenix Settlement Trust in 1970.  

  48. Meer, Fatima, Portraits of Indian South Africans, Durban, 1969. 

  49. Meer, Fatima (ed), The South African Gandhi: An Abstract of the Speeches and Writings of M.K. Gandhi, 1893-1914, Durban: Madiba Publishers, 1996.  

  50. Mehta, P. J., M.K. Gandhi and the South African Indian Problem, Madras: G. A. Natesan & Co., 1911 

  51. Mikula, Paul, Brian Kearney, and Rodney Harber, Traditional Hindu Temples in South Africa, Durban, 1982. 

  52. Minault, Gail, The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. 

  53. Morrell, Robert (ed), Political Economy and Identities in KwaZulu-Natal: Historical and Social Perspectives, Durban: Indicator Press, 1996. 

  54. Mujeeb, M., Indian Muslims, McGill University Press, 1967. 

  55. Murthy, B. Srinivasa (ed), Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy Letters, Long Beach, CA: Long Beach Publications, 1987.  

  56. Murugan, G., The Tamil Language in Natal: A Socio-linguistic Study, M. A. Thesis, University of Durban-Westville, 1994.  

  57. Nayar, Sushila, Mahatma Gandhi: Satyagraha At Work, vol. 4, Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1989.  

  58. Patel, Raojibhai M., The Making of the Mahatma, (Based on Gandhiji-ni Sadhna), Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1990.  

  59. Parekh, Bhiku, Colonialism, Tradition, and Reform: An Analysis of Gandhi's Political Discourse, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1989.  

  60. Prashad, Vijay, Everybody was Kung fu fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, Boston: Beacon Press, 2001. 

  61. Odendaal, Andre, Black Protest in South Africa to 1912, Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1984. 

  62. Parekh, Bhiku, Gandhi, Oxford University Press, 1997. 

  63. Parekh, Bhiku, Gandhi's Political Philosophy: A Critical Examination, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 1989.  

  64. Parel, Anthony J., Gandhi's Idea of Nation in Hind Swaraj, Gandhi Marg 13 (1991):261-82. 

  65. Prasad, Nageshwar (ed), Hind Swaraj: A Fresh Look, New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1985.  

  66. Polak, H.S.L., and Millie Graham Polak, "Gandhi, the Man," Indian Review, October 1929.  

  67. Polak, H.S.L., "South African Reminiscences," Indian Review, Feb, Mar, May, 1925. 

  68. Polak, H.S.L., "South African Reminiscence," Indian Review, October 1926.  

  69. Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi: The Birth of Satyagraha, From Petitioning to Passive Resistance, vol. 3, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1986.  

  70. Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi: The Early Phase, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1965 

  71. Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi: The Last Phase, Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1958 

  72. Pyerelal, Mahatma Gandhi: The Discovery of Satyagraha, On the Threshold, vol. 2, Bombay: Sevak Prakashan, 1980. 

  73. Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli (ed), Mahatma Gandhi: Essay and Reflections on His Life and Work, London: George Allen & Unwin, 1939.  

  74. Ramamurthi, T.G., Nonviolence and Nationalism: A Study of Gandhian Mass Resistance in South Africa, New Delhi, 1993. 

  75. Ramaswami, N.S., Temples of South India, Madras: Maps & Agencies, 1984.

  76. Reddy, E.S., Gandhiji's Vision of a Free South Africa, New Delhi: Sanchar, 1995. 

  77. Ruskin, John, Unto This Last: Four Essays on the First Principles of Political Economy, London: George Allen, Sunnyside, Orpington, 1900.  

  78. Sadiq Ali, Shanti, ed., Gandhi and South Africa, New Delhi: Hind Pocket Books, 1994.   

  79. Sarid, Isa and Christian Bartolf, Hermann Kallenbach: Mahatma Gandhi's Friend in South Africa, A Concise Biography, Selbstverlag, Germany: Gandhi-Information-Zentrum, 1997.  

  80. Shukla, Chandrashanker (ed), Incidents in Gandhiji's Life by Fifty-four Contributors, Bombay: Vora & Co., 1949. 

  81. Shukla, Chandrashanker (ed), Reminiscences of Gandhiji by Forty-Eight Contributors, Mumbai: Vora & Company Publishers Ltd., 1951.

  82. Swan, Maureen, Gandhi: The South African Experience, Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1985.  

  83. Tercheck, Ronald, Gandhi: Struggling for Autonomy, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.  

  84. Thompson, Mark, Gandhi and His Ashrams, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1993.  

  85. Uppal, J.N., Gandhi: Ordained in South Africa, New Delhi: Publication Division of Ministry of Information, Govt. of India, 1995. 

  86. Vahed, Goolam H., Swami Shankeranand and the consolidation of Hinduism in Natal, 1908-1914", Journal for the Study of Religion, 10:2 (August 2002):  3-35.  

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