PHILOSOPHY > THE MIND OF MAHATMA GANDHI > Chronology
 

Chronology

Year/Month

Date

Event

1869 Oct

 

2

 

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi born of a Bania (Vaishya or trading caste) family at Porbunder, Kathiawar, the youngest of the three sons of Karamchand ALIAS Kaba Gandhi, prime Minister successively in Porbunder, Rajkot and Vankaner States, and his fourth wife Putlibai.

1876  

Goes to Rajkot with parents; attend primary school there till twelfth year; is betrothed to Kasturbai, daughter of Gokuldas Makanji, merchant.

1881

 

Enters high school at Rajkot.

1883

 

Marries Kasturbai.

1884-85

 

Takes to meat-eating in secret, but abandons habit after about a year to avoid deceiving his parents.

1887

 

Passes matriculations examinations; joins Samaldas College at Bhavnagar (Kathiawar), but gives up studies at close of first term.

1888 Sept

4

Sails for England

Oct

28

Reaches London

Lives on vegetarian diet. Takes lessons in dancing and music for a short time, thinking they are necessary parts of a gentleman’s equipment

1889  

Reads books on simple living and decides to reduce expenses by half; studies religious literature; reads Gita for first time and is deeply impressed.

1890  

Cultivates contacts with vegetarian movement; for short while conducts vegetarian club.

June

 

passes London Matric

Sept

 

joins Vegetarian Society.

1891 June

10

Called to the Bar

 

12

Sails for India.

July

 

Reaches Bombay.

Nov

 

Applies for admission to Bombay High Court.

1892

 

struggles with legal practice at Rajkot and Bombay; later settles down at former place as legal draftsman.

1893 April

 

leaves for South Africa, being engaged by a Muslim firm for legal work

May-June

 

Experience colour bar in various forms; decides to remain and fight race prejudice.

1894 Aug

22

Founds Natal Indian Congress

Sept

 

Enrolled as Advocate of Supreme Court of Natal, being first Indian to be so enrolled. Studies religious literature including the Bible, the Koran and Tolstoy’s The kingdom of god is within you.

1895

 

Gets more committed to south African Indian cause. issues The Indian Franchise : An appeal to Every Briton in South Africa.

1896 July

 

Returns to India and starts agitation on behalf of south African Indians.

Aug

14

Publishes The Green Pamphlet at Rajkot, Tours Bombay, madras, Poona and Calcutta educating Indians in regard to grievances of south African Indians

Nov

30

Sails for South Africa with wife and children.

1897 Jan

 

13

20 Mobbed on landing at Durban by crowd excited by reports of his speeches in India on conditions of indentured Indian labour in South Africa.

 

20

Declines to prosecute assailants.

April

6

Submits long memorial to Chamberlain, secretary of State for colonies, regarding landing incidents, background.
Carries on programme of petitioning local and Imperial Authorities, as well as ofcommunicating with British and Indian public men regarding discriminatory laws.

1898-99

 

 

Represents to Indian National Congress, Colonial and Imperial authorities, against Locations and restrictions on Indian’s trading rights.

1899

 

Raises Indian Ambulance Corps in Boer War, which goes into action and is mentioned in dispatches; awarded war medal.

1990

 

Sends Dadabhai Naoroji draft resolution on South African Indian problem, for Congress session

1901 Oct

18

Sails for India

Dec

14

Reaches Rajkot via Porbunder.

 

27

Moves resolution on South Africa at congress

1902 Jan, 28 Feb

 

Visits Rangoon Stays for a month with Gokhale at Calcutta.
Returns to Rajkot, settles down to Practice.

July

1

Shifts to and sets up practice at Bombay

Nov

 

Is called to south Africa to champion Indian’s cause against anti-Asiatic legislation in Transvaal.

Dec

 

Arrives in Durban : leadsdelegation to chamberlain

1903

 

Enrolled as Attorney of Supreme Court of Transvaal; founds Transvaal British Indian Association.
Sends weekly statements regarding situation to Dadabhai Naoroji

June

 

Indian opinion commences publication

1904

 

Reads Ruskin’s Unto This Last: founds Phoenix Settlement near Durban (Natal); organizes hospital during outbreak of plague in Johannesburg; writes series of articles in Gujarati on dietetics which are later translated into English and published under the title Guide to Health.

1905

 

Opposes Bengal Partition, supports boycott of British goods. During Gokhale, Lajpat Rai deputation to Britain, appeals to Colonial statement to treat India, ‘an integral part of the Empire’, with consideration.
Leads deputation to Lord Selborne, British High Commissioner, concerning Transvaal Indian problem.

1906May

12

Support ‘home rule’ for India ‘ in the name of justice and for good of humanity’

 

27

Writes to brother, Lakshmidas, declaring disinterestedness in worldly possessions.

June-July

 

Raises Indian Stretcher-bearer Corps in Zulu Rebellion; takes vow of Brahmacharya for life.

Sept

11

Addresses mass meeting of Indian sat Johannesburg, which takes oath of passive resistance against newly promulgated Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance.

Oct,21 Nov 30

18

In England on deputation to present Indian’s case to Colonial Secretary

Dec.

 

Returns to South Africa.

1907 Jan- Feb.

 

Writes series of 8 articles in Gujarati on "Ethical Religion", published weekly in Indian Opinion and later, as a book

March

 

Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal Parliament. Indians hold protect meetings.

April

 

Sees smuts at Pretoria, acquaints him with resolutions adopted at mass meeting. Pledge, in Indian Opinion, opposition to‘ Black Act’.

May

 

‘Black Act’ receives royal assent

July

 

Address mass meeting opposing ‘Black Act’

Aug

 

Writes to Smuts criticising Registration Act, suggesting amendments.
Passive resistance, picketing of Permit Offices; defends passive resisters in court.

Dec

 

Smuts decides to prosecute Gandhiji

1908Jan

8

Asks Government for suspension of Registration act, offers voluntary registration.

 

10

Adopt word;‘ Satyagraha’ in place of ‘Passive Resistance’.
Sentenced to 2 months imprisonment for failure to leave Transvaal.

 

21

Agrees to settlement on basis of voluntary registration, if registration Act is repealed.

 

30

Summoned to see General Smuts at Pretoria and released, on reaching a compromise.

Feb

10

Nearly killed by Pathans who regard the compromise, under which Indians are expected to give their finger –prints voluntarily, as a betrayal of Indian interests; refuses to prosecute his assailants.

March-June

 

Negotiates with Smuts forfulfillment of promise of repeal of Act which Smuts denies;

July

 

Corresponding with Smuts released; Indians in mass meeting decide to refuse thumb impression and burn registration certificates

Aug

 

Declares use of violence ‘harmful, even useless to uproot British rule’ in India
Appeals to Smuts to repeal ‘Black Act’. Registration certificates burnt at meetings, passive resistance resumed

Sept

 

Royal assent is given to amended Registration Act.
Smuts refuses Indian terms for settlement

Oct

15

Arrested and sentenced sentenced to 2 months rigorous imprisonment

Dec

12

Released from VolksrustJail.
Indian National Congress adopts resolution on South Africa, criticizing the harsh, humiliating and cruel treatment of British Indians in South Africa as injurious to British Empire.

1909 Jan

16

Arrested at Volksrust for failing to produce registration certificate; on deportation, returned and is re-arrested, but released on bail.

 

20

Writes to press calling on Indians to prepare for final phase of struggle

Feb

25

Arrested at Volksrust; sentenced to 3 months

May

2

Transferred toPretoria Central Jail

 

24

released.

June

21

Leaves with Haji Habib, on deputation to England to represent Indian case.

July

10

Arrives in London.
With the assistance of Lord Ampthill, works ceaselessly to educate influential British leaders, the public, and to move Imperial authorities.

Oct

1

Writes to Tolstoy regarding Passive Resistance movement.

Nov

9

The times reports failure of Gandhi Government negotiations on Transvaal laws.

 

10

Replies to Tolstoy, sends his biography by Doke.

 

13

Leaves England for South Africa Writes Hind Swaraj on board "s. s. Kildonan Castle"

 

30

Reaches South Africa

Dec

29

Congress at Lahore adopts resolution praising Indian’s struggle in South Africa, urging ban on indenture.

1910 April

4

Sends Tolstoy copy of Indians Home Rule, seeks comments

May

8

Tolstoy replies; question of passive Resistance of greatest importance not only for India but for humanity.

 

30

Founds Tolstoy Farm

Dec

4

Pays memorial tribute to Tolstoy

1911 Jan

 

Communicates with Smuts regarding amendments to Immigrants’ Restrictions Bill; latter assures; no colour bar taint in laws

March

27

Interviews smuts atCape town

April

22

Smuts agrees to assurances demanded by Indians in reciprocation of suspension of Passive Resistance movement

May

3

Meets Smuts: ‘ProvisionalSettlement" arrived on Smuts’ promise of repeal of Asiatic Registration and Immigrations’ Restriction Acts’

June

24

Pledges loyalty to King-emperor on coronation

Dec

8

Invites Gokhale to South Africa

1912 March

16

Commends Gokhale’s attempts for abolition of indenture system

Sept

12

Phoenix Trust is set up

Oct

22

Accompanies Gokhale, on tour of South Africa, Laurenco Marques, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Gives up European dress and milk and restricts himself to diet of fresh and dried fruit.

1913Jan

18

Refers in Indian Opinion to the possibility of return home to India by mid-year.

March

14

Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle’s Supreme Court judgement.

 

30

Indians in mass meeting protest against Searle Judgement

 

April

12

In Indian opinion draws attention to new Immigration Bill’s failure to fulfill terms of Provisional Settlement of 1911.Kasturba decides to join passive Resistance struggle.

May

19

Warns Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief.

June

7

Idea of return to India deferred in view of stringent application of discriminatory laws and likely resumption of satyagraha

 

27

Express readiness for negotiations

Sept

13

Announces negotiation "proved abortive

 

15

Passive Resistance is revived

 

16

Kasturba is arrested

Oct

17

Visits Newcastle; urges indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of £3 tax. 3000 minor strike

 

24

proposes ‘March’ into Transvaal

 

28

March’ formNewcastle begins

 

30

Reaches Charlestown

Nov

3

Announces ‘March" into Transvaal to court arrest

 

5

Telephones Smuts seeking assurance of repeal of £ 3 tax

 

6

Leads ‘ Great March’
Arrested at Palmford

 

7

At Volksrust, released on bail; rejoin Marchers

 

8

Arrested at Standerton; released on recognizance; ‘March’ continues

 

9

Arrested at Teakworth, taken to Balfour

 

10

Takes ‘one meal a day’ pledge till repeal of tax

 

11

Sentenced, at Dundee, to 9 months’ rigorous imprisonment

 

13

Removed to Volksrust gaol

 

14

Sentenced to 3 months on fresh count at Volksrust

Dec

18

Released unconditionally; from time of release till settlement take only one meal a day and puts on indentured labourer’s dress.

1914 Jan

13,16

Interviews Smuts, submits proposals

 

22

Suspends satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
Fourteen day’s penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Farm

June

 

Indian Relief Act is passed

July

18

Sails for England, EN ROUTE to India

Aug

4

Reaches London.
Raises Indian Volunteer Corps

Oct

 

volunteer corps on duty

Dec

19

Sails for India

1915Jan

9

Reaches India.
Awarded Kaiser-I-Hind Gold Medal for Ambulance services

May

20

Founds Satyagraha Ashram (later known as Sabarmati Ashram, after the name of the river) at Ahmedabad

1915-16

Tours India and Burma, travelling 3rd class on the railways

1917

 

Successfully agitates against indentured Indian emigration; idea of making use of spinning-wheel to produce hand-made cloth on large scale takes root in his mind

April

 

Goes to Champaran (Bihar) to investigate conditions of labour in indigo plantations; arrested and later released; appointed by Bihar Government as member of committee set up t o inquire into ryots’ grievances.

1918 Jan-March

 

Takes up cause of textile labourers of Ahmedabad and fasts to secure amicable settlement of dispute; initiates satyagraha in Kaira District (Bombay) to secures suspension of revenue assessment on failure of crops

April

27

Attends Viceroy’s War Conference at Delhi and addresses it in Hindustani; subsequently tours Kaira District to raise recruits for army

1919Feb

28

Signs Satyagraha pledge to secure withdrawal of Rowlatt Bills.

April

6

inaugurates all-India satyagraha movement ; countrywide HARTAL

 

8-11

Arrested on way to Delhi for refusal to co, ply with order not to enter Punjab; escorted back to Bombay; outbreaks of violence in several towns.

 

13

Jallianwala Bagh tragedy at Amritsar, troops firing on an unarmed crowd and killing over 400. Addresses public meeting near Sabarmati Ashram and declares three day’s penitential fast

 

14

Confesses at Nadiad his 'Himalayan miscalculation’ regarding satyagraha martial law declared in Punjab.

 

18

Suspends satyagraha.

Sept

 

Assumes editorship of the Gujarati monthly, Navajivan, later published weekly in Hindi also

Oct

 

Assumes editorship of the English weekly, Young India; joins non-official committee of inquiry into official excesses in Punjab

Nov

24

presides over all-India Khilafat Conference at Delhi

Dec

 

Advises acceptance of Montague-Chelmsford Reforms by Congress at Amritsar.

1920Jan

 

Leads deputation to Viceroy to press on British Government not to deprive Sultan of Turkey (who was also Khalifa of Muslim) of his suzerainty over Holy Places of Islam.

Aug

1

Address letter to Viceroy surrendering Kaiser-I-Hind Medal, Zulu War Medal and Boer War Medal

Sept

 

Special session of Indian National Congress at Calcutta accepts his programme of non-co-operation to secure redress of Punjab and Khilafat wrongs

Nov

 

Founds Gujarat Vidyapeeth at Ahmedabad

Dec

 

Nagpur Congress session adopts his resolution declaring object of Congress to be attainment of Swaraj by the people of India by all legitimate and peacefully means

1921April

 

Launches programme of enlisting a crore of members in Congress, raising a crore of rupees for Tilak Swaraj fund and setting up 20 lakhs of charkhas in the country in furtherance of national constructive movement

Aug

 

Leads campaign for complete boycott of foreign cloth and light s monster bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay

Dec

 

Invested with full dictatorial powers by Congress session at Ahmedabad

1922Feb

1

Gives notice to Viceroy of Intention to launch satyagraha campaign in Bardoli (Gujarat).

 

5

Following Chauri Chaura (UP) tragedy, in which 21 police constables and one sub-inspector were burnt to death by a mob, fasts for five days and abandons plan of satyagraha movement

March

10

Arrested for sedition at Sabarmati and sentenced (march 18) to six years imprisonment.

1924Jan-Feb

 

Operated on for appendicitis in Sassoon Hospital, Poona (jan.12) and released on Feb.5.

April

 

Resumes editorship of Young India and Navajivan.

Sept

18

Begins 21 day’s fast for Hindu-Muslim unity.

Dec

 

Provides over Congress session at Belgaum.

1925Sept

 

Founds All-India Spinner’s Association

Nov

 

Seven days vicarious fast for misdeeds of Ashram inmates.
Commences writing his autobiography,'The story of my Experiments with Truth'.

1927Nov

 

Visits Ceylon

1928Dec

 

Moves resolution at Calcutta Congress session in favour of Independence if Dominion Status in not granted by end of 1929.

1929Dec

 

At his instance Lahore Congress session declares that Swaraj in Congress creed shall mean Purna Swaraj (complete independence).

1930Feb

 

Appointed by A.I.C.C. as Congress Dictator to launch Civil Disobedience movement.

March

2

Addresses letter to Victory intimating his intention to break Salt law if Congress demands are not conceded

 

12

Commences march to Dandi sea-beach, where he ceremoniously picks up salt (April 6).

May

5

Arrested and imprisoned without trial; HARTAL all over India; over 100,000 are jailed before close of year

1931Jan

26

Unconditionally released from prison

Feb-march

 

Has series of talks with Viceroy resulting in Irwin-Gandhi Pact

Aug

29

sails for England as sole Congress delegate to Second Round Table Conference.

Sept-Dec

 

Attends session of Conference

Dec

5

Leaves England for India

 

28

lands in Bombay

1932 Jan

4

Arrested and imprisoned without trial

Sept

20

commences ‘ fast unto death’ in jail to secure abolition of separate electorates for Harijans in communal Award

 

26

Breaks fast on Government of India’s acceptance of his demand regarding Harijans

1933 Feb,

11

Founds the weekly paper Harijan, published in English and Hindi

May

8

Commences at noon 21 days fast for self purification; released unconditionally at 9 p.m.

 

9

Announces suspension of Civil Disobedience movement for six weeks and calls on the Government to withdraw its Ordinances

 

29

Breaks fast.

July

26

Disbands Satyagraha Ashram

 

30

Informs Government of Bombay of his decision to March from Ahmedabad to Ras with 33 followers to revive Civil Disobedience Movement

 

31

Arrested and imprisoned without trial

Aug

4

Released and rearrested for breaking a restraint order

 

16

Goes on fast on being denied facilities to carry on anti-untouchability propaganda

 

23

Released unconditionally

Nov

7

commences Harijan-uplift tour

1934Sept

17

Announces decision to retire from politics from October 1 to engage himself in development of village industries, Harijan service and education through basic crafts

Oct

26

Inaugurates All-India Village Industries Association.

1936April

30

Settles down at Sevagram, a village near Wardha in the Central Provinces, making it his headquarters

1937Oct

22

Presides over Educational Conferences at Wardha and outlines his scheme of education through basis crafts

1939 March

3

Commences ‘fast unto death’ at Rajkot to secure Ruler’s adherence to promise given to reform administration, and ends it on March 7 on Viceroy’s intervention

1940 July&Sept

 

Meets viceroy by invitation in connection with war situation

Oct

 

Sanctions individual civil disobedience; suspends Harijan and allied weeklies following official demand for pre-censorship of reports and writing in Harijan on the subject of Satyagraha.

1941Dec

30

At his own request is relieved of his leadership of Congress by Working Committee.

1942Jan

18

Restarts Harijan and allied weeklies

March

27

Meets Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi; later declares Cripps proposals to be a ‘post-dated cheque’.

May

 

Appeals to British Government to quit India

Aug

8

Addresses A.I.C.C. session in Bombay on implication of Quit India resolution.

 

9

Arrested and interned in Agakhan’s palace at Poona

 

15

Death of Mahadev Desai, Gandhiji’s personal secretary, from heart failure, in Aga Khan’s palace

Aug-Dec

 

Corresponds with Viceroy and Government of India regarding disturbances

1943Feb

10

Commences 21 days fast, which he breaks on march 3

1944Feb

22

Kasturba Gandhi dies in Aga Khan palace

May

6

Released unconditionally

Sept

9-27

Carries on talks with M.A. Jinnah regarding Pakistan

Oct

2

Presentation of purse of 110lakhs of rupees (£ 8,25,000) for Kasturba Memorial on occasion of 75thbirthday

1945 April

17

In a statement regarding the ensuing San Francisco Conference says that peace is impossible without equality and freedom of India. Also demands a just peace for Germany and Japan.

Dec

19

Lays foundation stone of C.F. Andrews’ Memorial Hospital at Santiniketan.

1945-46Dec-Jan

 

Tour Bengal and Assam

1946 Jan& Feb

 

tours Southern India for anti-untouchability and Hindustani Propaganda.

Feb

10

Revives Harijan and allied group of weekly journals.

April

 

Participates in political talks with Cabinet Mission in Delhi

May

5-12

In Simla; Simla Conference in session; deliberations prove infructuous

 

16

Cabinet mission announces Plan

 

18-19

Discusses Plan with Cabinet mission

 

26

Considers Plan best document produced by British Government under circumstances.

June

6

In Mussoorie

 

7

Returns to Delhi.

 

10

Refuses to enthuse over Allied Victory as not being ‘Victory of truth over falsehood’.

 

11

Viceroy interviews Gandhiji, moots proposal of coalition Government at Centre

 

16

Cabinet Mission negotiations discontinued; Viceroy proposes Interim Government.

 

18

Congress Working Committee decides to accept interim Government scheme.

 

20-1

Attends Working Committee meeting. Gandhiji is seen by Cripps

 

23

Advices Congress not to enter Interim Government, but only Constituent Assembly

 

24

Meets Cabinet Mission

 

28

Leaves Delhi forPoona; attempts made to derail train EN ROUTE

July

7

Address A.I.C.C. meeting at Bombay; Congress accepts Cabinet Mission Plan of May 16.

 

31

Jinnah threatens sanctions of ‘Direct Action’

Aug

12

Viceroy announces invitation to Congress to form Provisional Government.

Aug

16-18

The ‘Great Calcutta Killing’

 

24

Viceroy Wavell broadcasts Plan

 

27

Gandhiji cables warning to British Government against repetition of ‘Bengal tragedy’; also writes to Wavell

Sept

4

Interim Government formed

 

26

Has interview with Wavell

Oct

9

Jinnah’s 9-point demands conveyed to Congress

 

10

Noakhali Massacre

 

15

Muslim League agrees to enter Interim Government

 

28

Leaves for Calcutta. Riots breaks out in Bihar

Nov

6

Leaves for Noakhali; issues statement on ‘Partial Fast’.

Noakhali tour begins.

 

20

Starts tour without party

Dec

20

Completes month-long sojourn at Srirampur

 

25

At Noakhali, says :"I am being tested through and through".

 

30

Jawaharlal Nehru calls on Gandhiji, who says: "my reason wholly supports my heart

1947 Jan

2

Says: "all around me is utter darkness".
Leaves Srirampur on walking tour

 

3-29

In Bihar, touring riot-affected areas

 

30

Leaves Patna for Delhi

April

1-2

Gandhiji addresses Asian Relation Conference in Delhi

 

15

Issues with Jinnah joint appeal for communal peace

 

29

In Bihar

May

1

Congress Working Committee accepts Partition in principle.

 

5

In interview, Gandhiji denies that communal division of India is inevitable

 

24

Leaves Bihar for Delhi

 

31

Declares peace must precede Partition, he would not be party to India’s vivisection.

June

2

Viceroy’s Partition plan revealed; Congress Working Committee conveys acceptance.

 

3

Indian leader broadcast on Mountbatten Plan

 

6

Gandhiji writes to Mountbatten, with Pakistan conceded to persuade Jinnah to amicable settle all outstanding points with Congress

 

12

Addresses Congress Working Committee

July

 

‘Independence of India Bill passed’

 

27

Appeals to Princes to regard people’s paramountcy as a privilege

August

14

Hails following day as one of rejoicing for deliverance from British bondage; but deplores partition. Pakistan is born

Aug

15

Hindu-Muslim fraternization in Calcutta

 

16

Hails ‘Miracle of Calcutta’

Sept

1

Considers Calcutta peace nine-days wonder, decides on fast

 

2

Is mobbed in Calcutta house ;gives up idea of Noakhali visit. Peace efforts intensified

 

4

Breaks fast

 

7

Leaves Calcutta for Delhi; commences daily visits to riot-raced areas.

 

24

Pakistan raiders invade Kashmir.

 

25

Kashmir accedes to Indian Union

 

26

Criticises Churchill's holocaust in India’ statement

Nov

1

Indian troops enter Junagadh

 

3

Junagadh accedes to India.
Address A.I.C.C

 

11

Defends Junagadh’s accession to India

Dec

25

Pleads for amicable settlement between India and Pakistan

 

30

India refers Kashmir dispute to U.N.

1948

12

Decides to fast for communal peace in Delhi; Mountbatten fails to dissuade Gandhiji.

 

15

Enters ‘danger zone’. Hails Indian Cabinet’s decision to release Pakistan dues of Rs. 550 million. Fast continues for establishment of communal peace.

 

17

Doctors warn fast must be ended. Central Peace Committee formed, decides on ‘Peace Pledge’

 

18

Peace Committee signs, presents ‘Peace Pledge’ to Gandhiji, who breaks fast.

 

20

Bomb explodes at prayer meeting

 

27

Visits Mehrauli Muslim Fair

 

29

Angry refugees ask Gandhiji to retire to the Himalayas

 

30

Drafts constitution of a Congress transformed into Lok Sevak Sangh. Is assassinated on way to evening prayer.