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NOTES
Approach to Communal Harmony > Character and Communal Unity
Young India, May 7, 1919.
Young India, February 26, 1925, p. 75, in commenting on a letter from a Bengali Zamindar.
Young India, December 24, 1931, p. 413; speech at Plenary session of the Round Table Conference in London.
Harijan, April 21, 1946, p. 94; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, April 6. Gandhiji was referring to the Rowlatt Act Satyagraha, inaugurated on April 6, 1919.
Harijan, March 16, 1947, p.62; speech at prayer meeting, February 19.
Harijan, May 25, 1947, p. 165; at prayer meeting, May 10.

Approach to Communal Harmony > Hindu-Muslim Unity
Young India, May 7, 1919.
Young India, October 6, 1920, p.4.
Young India, September 29, 1921. p.307; in reply to a friend.
Young India, May 11, 1921, p. 148.
Ibid.
Young India, January 26
Young India, October 11, 1928, p. 342; in reply to a volunteer from Ahmadabad who had written to him seeking advise as to what Hindus should do in cases of Muslim assaults.
Harijan, March 16, 1947, p.62; vide note 5 above.
Young India, September 29, 1921, p.307.
Young India, April 2, 1925, p.115; in reply to a Muslim lawyer.
Young India Gandhiji was asked by Maulana Abdul kalam Azad to call a meeting of the Congress Working Committee in order to consider the Hindu-Muslim Conference at Allahabad on June 30, 1920.
A Bunch of Old Letters, p. 46; letter to Jawaharalal Nehru, April 23, 1926.
Young India, September 9, 1926, p. 316, the alternative way referred to was Non-co-operation, adopted unanimously at a Hindu-Muslim Conference at Allahabad on June 30, 1920.
Young India, January 27, p. 31; in the course of a speech in Hindi at Sewan in Bihar when asked to speak on Hindu-Muslim Unity.
Young India, September 24, 1931, p.273; in an address to an Arab audience at Adenon August 30, 1931, on his way to the Round Table Conference in London.

Approach to Communal Harmony > Equal Servant of God
Young India, March 10, 1927, p. 80; speech at Solapur.
Ibid.
Harijan, January 27, 1940 p. 429; in reply to a visitor who charged him with having offered to sell his soul to win the favour of his Muslim friends.
Harijan March 8, 1947, p. 59; speech at Rajpura, February 16.
Harijan, July 6, 1947, p.218; speech at prayer meeting.
Harijan, June 8, 1940, p. 156.
Harijan, May 11, 1947, p. 146; speech at prayer meeting, Patna, April 28. The reference to Iqbal’s song to Saare Jahanse Achchha, Hindustan Hamara.
Harijan, May 25, 1947, p. 165; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta, May 10.
Harijan, September 28, 1947, p. 349, address at a meeting at Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh (RSS) on September 16, at New Delhi.
Harijan, September 21, 1947, p. 336; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 13.

Approach to Communal Harmony > Communalism
Young India, September 9, 1926, p. 316.
Harijan, January 6, 1940, p. 403; referring to the communal riots at Sukkur and Shikapur in Sindh.
Harijan, September 15, 1940, p.284.
Harijan, November 17, 1946, p. 402; speech at prayer meeting at Panchgaon, January 29.
Harijan, March 23, 1947, p.78 in reply to a question at prayer meeting, February 26.

Achievement of Communal Unity > Mutual Tolerance
Young India, May 7, 1919
Ibid
Young India, February 25, 1920, p.3.
Young India May 11, 1921, p.148.
Harijan May 31, 1942, p. 172; Gandhiji was commenting on hooliganism at Rajaji’s meeting : “Hooliganism is no answer to Rajaji’s argument. The disturbance at his meetings is a sign of great intolerance”. The latter had advocated, inter alia, conceding the Muslims the right of secession.
Harijan, October 13, 1946, p. 354; a speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 22.
Harijan, October 5, 1947, p. 334; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 22.
Young India, January 26, 1922, p. 22.

Achievement of Communal Unity > The Unitary Method
Indian Review, October 1909, p.p. 760; quoted from a letter to a Mohammedan correspondent.
Young India, October 20, p. 333.
Harijan, February 1, 1942, p. 27; the Lucknow Pack, signed in December 1916, conceded separate electorates and increase in the ‘weightage’ to Muslims in the Punjab and Bengal legislatures, in excess of representation on a population basis. Representation at the Centre too was enhanced, Muslims agreed to give up their right to vote both in the general and the separate electorates, and agreed to a constitutional formula which would amount to dominion status for India.

Achievement of Communal Unity > Pacts
Young India, May 11, 1921, p. 148
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 176
Ibid, p. 182.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 176
Ibid, p. 182.
Young India, August 21, 1924, p. 276; in the course of reply of the charge from some American friends that, in the name of religion, he was introducing Bolshevism in India.
Young India, June 16, 1927, p. 196.
Harijan, June 18, 1938, p. 152.
Harijan, May 4, 1940, p. 115.
Harijan, January 25, 1942, p. 13.

Achievement of Communal Unity > The Vow of Unity
Young India, May 7, 1919; April 6, 1919 was observed as a “day of humiliation and prayer” in view of the passing of the Rowlatt Act in March despite unanimous opposition in the country. Gandhiji issued a leaflet on Hindu-Muslim unity, in Hindi, of which a free translation appeared in Young India.
Young India, May 29, 1924, pp. 182-3.
Young India, January 26, 1922, p. 62; with reference to the Moplah trouble in Malabar and the Musalman attitude.
Young India, September 29, 1921, p. 307.
Young India, March 16, 1922, p. 161; letter to Hakim Ajmal Khan from Sabarmati Jail, Ahmadabad, on March 12.
Harijan, November 23, 1947, p. 425; speech at prayer meeting, Delhi, November 16.

Achievement of Communal Unity > Work for Unity
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 182.
Young India, June 5, 1924, p. 185.
Young India, June 16, 1927, p. 196.
Young India, September 29, 1919; speech at public meeting of Musalmans in Bombay, September 18, on a resolution on the threatened dismemberment of Turkey.
Young India, March 16, 1922, p. 161; letter to Hakim Ajmal Khan on March 12, from Sabarmati Jail.
Young India, June 5, 1924, p. 185.
Harijan, March 16, 1947, p. 61; speech at prayer meeting, February 17. Gandhiji was asked how workers for communal unity could avoid divided counsels.
Harijan, March 16, 1947, p. 62; speech at prayer meeting. February 19.
Harijan, February 2, 1947, p. 3; speech at prayer meeting, on the way to Badalkote January 18.
Harijan, May 25, 1947, p. 166; written message at prayer meeting on silence day, Calcutta, May 12.
Young India, March, 12, 1931, pp. 32, 36; speech at Delhi, March 7.
Harijan, April28, 1946, p. 103; in reply to question by a Jamina Millia Student, New Delhi.
Harijan, May 25, 1947, p. 166; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta, May 12.

Religious aspect of the communal problem > Religion and communal unity
Young India, May 11, 1921, p.148.
Young India, August 20, 1925, p. 292; address to European Christians, Jamshedpur.
With Gandhiji in Ceylon, p. 89; speech at Zahira College; Colombo, November 22, 1927.
Harijan, June 8, 1940, p.157.
Harijan, July 13, 1940, p.207.
Harijan August 9, 1942, p. 261.
Harijan, February 23, 1947, p.37; speech on silence day, Palla, January 27.
Harijan, March 16, 1947, p.63; speech at prayer meeting. February 19.
Harijan, April 20, 1947, p. 119; speech at prayer meeting. New Delhi, April 5.
Harijan, June 29, 1947, p. 214; in conversation with Khwaja Saheb Abdul Majid, at New Delhi.
Harijan October 5, 1947, p. 361; speech at prayer meeting. New Delhi, September 26.
Harijan October 5, 1947, pp. 362-3; speech at prayer meeting, September 27.
Young India, January 4, 1948, p. 497; speech at prayer meeting. New Delhi. December 23, 1947.
Autobiography, p. 33.
Young India, August 28, 1924, p. 284.
Young India, September 25, 1924, p. 284.
Young India, October 2, 1924, p.321.
Young India, December 22, 1927, p. 425; speech at a meeting of missionaries at Jafna, Ceylon, during his tour.
Harijan, November 3, 1946, p. 383; in the context of a ban imposed by the Sindh Government on Satyartha Prakash, a sacred book of the Arya Samaj.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p.180.
Young India, September 22, 1927, p. 320; quoted by Gandhiji from his earlier article in Young India: “Inflammatory Literature” June 19, 1924, on Rangila Rasul, “highly offensive” pamphlet in Urdu by an anonymous author, published by Arya Pustakalaya, Lahore.
Young India, September, 25, 1924, p. 313.
Young India, September 22, 1927, p. 320; quoted by Gandhiji from an earlier Article: half a Dozen and six”, Young India, July 10, 1924, p. 332.
Harijan, November 3, 1946, p. 3283; vide 19 above.
Young India, August 25, 1927, p. 272.
Harijan, December 8, 1946, p. 444; speech at prayer meeting. Madhupur, November 19.

Religious aspect of the communal problem > Temples and Mosques
Young India, August 28, 1924, p. 284.
Young India, January 27, 1927, p. 31.
Harijan, March 9, 1940, p.30.
Harijan, February 23, 1947, p. 40; speech at prayer meeting. Sadurkhil, February 4.
Harijan, January 25, 1947, p. 533; speech on the occasion breaking his fast, January 18.
Young India, August 28, 1924, p. 284.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 310.
Young India, December 18, 1925, p. 411.
Harijan, March 30, 1947, pp. 86; speech at prayer meeting, Patna March 12.
Harijan, April 13, 1947, p.107-8; speech at prayer meeting, Patna, March 28.
Harijan August 17, 1947, p. 278; in reply to an address in Gurumukhi at Patna Saheb, the famous Sikh Gurudwara in west Punjab.
Ibid, Gandhiji observed this with reference to the protection of Panja Saheb, Nanakana Saheb and other gurudwaras in Pakistan and elsewhere.
Harijan, December 7, 1947, p. 461; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, November 30.
Harijan, January 4, 1948 p. 495; speech at prayer meeting. New Delhi, December 22 1947.
Harijan, February 8, 1948, p. 20; speech at prayer meeting. New Delhi, January 27. Gandhiji had visited the Dargah Sheriff at Mehrauli that morning and was referring to damage done to it.

Religious aspect of the communal problem > Music before Mosques
Young India, May 11, 1921, p. 148.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 181.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 312.
Young India, October 22, 1925, p. 360.
Young India, May 11, 1921, p. 148.
Young India, October 22, 1925, p. 360.
Ibid
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 175.
Ibid., pp. 181-2
Young India, September 25, 1924, p. 317.
Young India, May 29. 1924, p. 117.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p.312.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 182-2.
Ibid, p. 182.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 312.
Young India, September 25, 1924, p. 317.
Young India, January 5, 1928, p.4.
Harijan, February 23, 1947, p. 40; speech at prayer meeting; vide note 134 above.
Harijan, August 31, 1947, p. 298; speech at prayer meeting. Beliaghata, August 19.

Religious aspect of the communal problem > Cow-slaughter and Cow-protection
Young India, May 11, 1921,p. 148.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 181.
Young India, May 11, 1921, p. 148.
Young India, January 29, 1925, pp. 38-9.
Young India, May 7. 1919
Young India, May 18, 1921, pp.156-7.
Young India, January 29, 1925, p.38.
Harijan, May 11, 1947, pp. 145-6; speech at prayer meeting. Patna, April 25.
Harijan, April 27, 1940, p. 101.
Young India, April 8, 1926, pp. 131-2.
Young India, October 20, 1921, p. 333; in the course of reply to the editor, Modern Review.
Young India, January 29, 1925, p. 38.
Autobiography, pp.478-9.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 181.
Young India, April 27, 1094, p. 101; in reply to question if, under a Hindu majority government, Muslims will be allowed to eat their ‘national’ food, beef.
Harijan, May 11, 1947, p. 146; speech at prayer meeting, Patna, April 25.
Harijan, November 16, 1947, p. 411; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, November 4; vide para 245, p. 102.
Young India, June 8, 1921, p. 182.
Young India, October 6, 1921, p. 318.
Young India, January 29, 1921, p. 38.
A Bunch of Old Letters, p. 42; letter to Jawaharlal Nehru, April 25, 1925.
Harijan, August 31, 1947, p. 300.
Harijan, September 7, 1947, p. 310; speech at prayer meeting Calcutta, August 25.
Young India, May 7, 1919.
Young India, May 18, 1921, pp. 156-7.
Young India, June 29, 1921, p.237.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 311.
Young India, January 29, 1925, p. 39.
Young India, January 27, 1927, p. 31; speech at Sewan, Bihar.
Young India, June 8, 1921, p. 182.
Young India, January 29, 1925, p. 38.
Harijan, August 10, 1947, p. 300.
Harijan, August 10, 1947, p. 273 at prayer meeting, New Delhi, July 25.
Harijan August 31, 1947, p. 300.
Harijan November 16, 1947, pp. 410-1.
Young India, June 5, 1924 p. 65.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 311.
Young India, January 29, 1921, p. 39.
Young India, June 8, 1921, p. 182.
Young India May, 29, 1924, p. 181.
Young India, September 18, 1924, pp. 311-2.
Young India, January 5, 1928, p. 4.

Religious aspect of the communal problem > Communal Slogans
Harijan, March 23, 1947, p. 74; speech at prayer meeting, Patna, March 6.
Harijan, August 31, 1947, p. 299; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta, August 21.
Ibid, p. 303; speech at prayer meeting, Alipore, August 23.

The causes of Communal Riots > Specific Causes
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 181; Gandhiji wrote a long and detailed survey entitled “Hindu Muslim Tension” : Its Cause and Cure Ibid pp. 173-81.
Young India, June 5, 1924, p. 188, a summary of the long statement above.

The causes of Communal Riots > Psychology of fear
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 176.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 312.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 177.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 308, in commenting on a correspondent’s observations.
ibid, p. 311.
Young India, October 11, 1928, p. 342; with reference to acts of Muslim vandalism at Godhra.
Harijan, January 6, 1940, p. 403, writing in the context of communal riots in Sukkur and Shikapur in Sindh; vide para 15, p. 266-7.
Harijan,November 3, 1946, p. 388; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, giving a new year’s message on the eve of Diwali.
Harijan, December 1, 1946, 1946, p. 422; speech at a gathering of Hindus and Muslims; Dattapara, November 8.
Harijan, January 5, 1947, p. 479; speech at prayer meeting, Shriampur, November 20.
Ibid, p. 477; speech at prayer meeting, Shriampur, November 20.
Harijan, December 8, 1946, p. 442; written message at prayer meeting Kazirkhil, silence day, November 18.
Harijan, January 5, 1947; speech at prayer meeting, Shrirampur, December 6.
Harijan, January 26, 1947, pp. 517-8; speech at prayer meeting, Chandipur, December 28, 1946.
Young India, May 29, 1924 p. 174.
Harijan, January 6, 1940, p. 403, with reference to communal trouble in Sindh.
Harijan, April 20, 1947, p. 119, speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, April 5. Gandhiji was referring to acts of violence in Nokakhali, Bihar and the Punjab.
Ibid, p. 120; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, April 6. Gandhiji was writing against the background of violent out breaks in the Punjab.

The causes of Communal Riots > Distrust
Young India, May 7, 1919.
Young India, May 11, 1921, p. 148.
Young India, March 16, 1922, p. 161; letter to hakim Ajmal Khan, February 12, 1922, from Sabarmati jail.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 177; vide note 1 above.
Young India, June 19, 1924, p. 205; in reply to questions raised by Babu Bhagwandas in a letter addressed to Gandhiji and published in the same issue.
Young India, April 2, 1925, p. 115; in answer to a question by a Muslim lawyer.

The causes of Communal Riots > Tiredness of Non-violence
Young India, May 29, 1924, pp. 174-5; discussing the causes of Hindu-Muslim tension.

The causes of Communal Riots > Propaganda of vilification
Young India May 7. 1919.
Young India, May 18, 1921, p. 156; with reference to reported instances of forcible removal of fish and meat from people by overzealous vegetarians under the pretext that Gandhiji had made vegetarianism part of non-co-operations.
Young India, July 16, 1925, p. 248; Gandhiji had received abusive letters from Hindu correspondents after he had stated in an interview to the associated Press about the Hindu-Muslim riots in Kidderpore, that the Hindu labourers were wholly in the wrong.
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 180.
Young India, May 10, 1924, p. 332, quoted in Young India, September 22, 1924, p. 320; Gandhiji was writing with reference to Rangila Rasul, controversy over which arose again in 1927.
Young India, December 30, 1926, p. 458; Gandhiji was writing in the context of the assassination of Swami Shraddhanand by Abdul Rashid. Vide para 40, p. 193.
Harijan May 4. 1940, p. 298.
Harijan, August 25. 1946, p. 298.
Harijan, October 6, 1946, p. 338; at a meeting of the presidents and secretaries of District and Provincial Congress Committees, on the occasion of the A. I. C. C. meeting, Delhi.
Ibid, pp. 338-9.
Harijan, September 28, 1947, 352, speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 20.
Harijan, January 4, 1948, pp. 498-9; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, December 25, 1946.
Young India, December 30, 1926, p. 458; vide note 33 above.
Young India, September 22, 1927, p. 321; vide note 21 above.
Harijan, January 19, 1947, p. 496; ‘silence day’ message at prayer meeting, New Delhi, December 23 as reported by the Associated Press Of India.
Harijan, February 1, 1948, p. 13; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, January 27.
Harijan, February 8, 1948, p. 21; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, January 27. Gandhiji was speaking with reference to a telegram from Muslims that” his fast had produced no effect in Mysore”. This was disproved by another telegram later which claimed that, on the contrary, it had eased the tension.

The causes of Communal Riots > The Third Party
Young India, October 6, 1920, p. 4.
Young India, June 8, 1921,p. 182.
Young India, October 20, 1921, pp. 333-4; in commenting on an editorial in the Modern Review; vide note to para 202, p. 91.
Young India, June 5, 1924, p. 185.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 311, Gandhiji was writing in the context of communal trouble in parts of Gujarat.
Harijan, November 3, 1946, p. 382; interview of Preston Grover at New Delhi, on October 21. Gandhiji was asked as to when this type of disturbances would end in India, the reference being to the outbreak of disorder in East Bengal.
Harijan, June 8, 1947, p. 181; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, May 29.
Young India, June 16, 1927, p. 196; Gandhiji was referring to the desirability of “any agreement between the component parts of the nation” being voluntary and capable of enforcement. Vide para 37, p. 26.
Young India, November 12, 1931, p. 346; in a talk to the members of the Raleigh Club, London, in answer to a question whether the British attitude was an obstacle in his path.
Harijan, May 24, 1942, p. 162; in reply to a question: “You have repeated in your interview in Bombay (vide para 17, p. 20 and note) and you have said often that nothing can prevent the Muslims from having what they want unless the objectors would fight over the issue. What is the difference between you and Shri Rajagopalachari’s attitude?” Gandhiji replied: “Though he has quoted me in his support, I see the same difference between him and me that is there between chalk and cheese. He yields the right of secession now to buy unity in the hope of keeping away the Japanese. My statement amounts to the enunciation of the proposition that I cannot prevent my neighbor from committing a sin. Shri Rajagopalachari would be a party to the sin, if the neighbour chooses to commit it. I cannot be party. Fear of the Japanese has blinded C.R. to the oblivious truth. Independence sheds all fear- fear of the japans, of anarchy, and of the wrath of the British Lion.”
Ibid, p. 166; in answer to the question: “Would you review the situation created by the Allahabad A.I.C.C. meeting? What would you say regarding Rajaji’s quoting your words regarding Pakistan in support of his latest move?” Gandhiji replied: “I would leave the Allahabad resolution to them. C.R has quoted me correctly.” Vide also para 17, p. 20.
Harijan, June 7, 1942, p. 180; in commenting on a “content letter form a friend who is most anxious to bridge the political gulf between Rajaji and me.” Vide paras 25 and 26, pp. 303-4.
Harijan, June 14, 1942; p.187, in answer to the question, “But what does a free India mean, if as Mr. Jinnah said, Muslims will not accept Hindu rule?” Interview to two American newspaper men Mr. Chaplin (International News Service, America) and Mr. Beldon (representing Life of Time) at Sevagram.
Harijan, June 21, 1942, p. 198. The Nagpur correspondent of the Hindu asked Gandhiji : “Till the last day, you said there can be no Swaraj without Hindu-Muslim unity. Now, why is it that you think there will be no unity until India has achieved independence?”

Social implication of Communal riots > The Goondas and the riots
Young India, May 29, 1924, p. 180.
Harijan, April, 7, 1946 p. 74; speech at Shivaji Park, Mumbai March 14. Vide para 65, p. 282.
Harijan, December 1, 1946, p. 422; a speech on board Kiwi, at Chandpur, E. Bengal. November 7.
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 309.
Young India, June 19, 1924, p. 205.
Harijan September 15, 1940, p. 285.
Harijan, November 17, 1946, p. 402; speech at Calcutta, with reference to riots in Bihar.
Harijan, September 7, 1947, pp. 315-6; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta August 29. Gandhiji was asked whether the minorities would have recognition as religious minorities had.
Harijan, September 7, 1947, p. 318; speaking to all community deputation comprising Shahed Suhrawardy, N.C. Chatterji and Niranjan Singh Taleb, on September 4, at Calcutta, regarding the recrudescence of communal trouble.

Social implication of Communal riots > Communal Crime and Truth
Harijan, November 17, 1946, p. 401; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta.
Harijan, December 8, 1946, p. 444; speech at prayer meeting, Dasgharia November 17.
Harijan, April 27, 1947, p. 127; speech at prayer meeting New Delhi, April. Shaheed Suhrawardy, Chief Minister of Bengal, had issued a statement in the Press that the release of Satish Babu’s wires regarding the Noakhali happenings had provoked fresh trouble in Calcutta.
Harijan, October 20, 1946, p. 368.
Harijan, June 8, 1847, p. 181; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, May 29.
Ibid, p. 182; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, May 30. Gandhiji was referring to murder and incendiaries in villages near Gurgaon, Delhi.

Harijan, February 9, 1947, p. 181; speech meeting, Muraim, January 24.
Harijan, July 27, 1947, p. 255; commenting on an editorial in Dawn of Lahore of July 18, which had taken to task for his statement that Jinnah’s assurances about the protection of the minorities in Pakistan would be valued according to the corresponding deeds of the Muslims there.

Social implication of Communal riots > Restoration of Peace
Harijan, January 12, 1947, p. 489; in an interview.
Ibid.
Harijan, March 30, 1947, p. 88, speech prayer, Khursupur, March 14. The secretary of the Provincial Muslim league had complained to Gandhiji that though the Government had made arrangements for repatriation, the mental attitude of the Hindus was not sufficiently reassuring.
Harijan, April 4, 1947, p. 97; speech at prayer meeting Masurhi March 17.
Harijan, April 20, 1947, p. 119; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, April 5.
Harijan, June 1, 1947, p. 175; speech at prayer meeting. Hilsa (Bihar), May 20.
Harijan, February 2, 1947, p. 3; speech at prayer meeting, January 18.
Ibid.
Harijan, July 6, 1947, p. 218; on June 25 newspapers carried reports that Hindu Sikh and Muslim leaders of Lahore had issued a joint peace appeal and that they were determined to put down violence.
Harijan, August 31, 1947, p. 299; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta, August 20. The Central Peace Committee and local committees were set up soon after August 15.
Harijan, August 31, 1947, p. 310; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta August 25.
Harijan, October 26, 1947, p. 382; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi October 14.
Ibid, pp. 387-8; speech at prayer meeting. New Delhi, October 19. Gandhiji was referring to the presence, at the prayer meeting the previous day, of Sheikh Abdula and the widow of Rafi Ahmed Kidwai’s brother.
Harijan, December28, 1947, p.482; address to a gathering of Meos, who had been driven out of Alwar and Bharatpur States, in the village of Jesarah, Gurgaon, near Delhi, December 9.
Harijan, January 25, 1948, pp. 535-6; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, January 19.
Harijan, February, 1, 1948, p. 10; speech at prayer meeting, New delhi, January 19.
Harijan, May 11, 1940, p. 123; in reply to the question: “You feel keenly about Bidar. You ask for justice about it and you want Muslims outside Hyderabad to see that justice is done. Do you feel equally keenly if Muslims are ill-treated as they were in Bihar?”
Harijan, June 1, 1940, p. 149. Five persons from Hyderabad, Deccan, writing to Gandhiji, had suggested the appointment of an impartial Commission of inquiry to go into the communal disturbances in Bidar.

Personal reaction to Communal Riots > Religion and Riots
Young India, May 29, 1924, p.176.
Young India, September 25 1924, p. 313. Gandhiji was referring to the violent disturbances in Amethi, Shambhar, Gulbarg and Kohat; vide para 28, pp.225-6.

Young India, December 30, 1926, p. 458. Gandhiji was writing in the context of the assassination of Swami Shraddhanand, vide para 40, p. 193.
Young India, June 16, 1927, p. 196.
Harijan, July 28, 1946, p. 244; writing of the “butchery’ in Ahmedabad.
Ibid, p. 243; speech at prayer meeting. Panchagani, July 20.
Harijan, October 6, 1946, p. 342; speech at prayer meeting,  New Delhi (prior to October 1 )
Harijan, April 6, 1947, p. 97; speech at prayer meeting, Patna March 21.
Harijan, September 21, 1947, p. 335; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi September 12.

Personal reaction to Communal Riots > Fasts for Communal Peace
Harijan, October 27, 1946, pp. 372-3; in the course of a talk with two friends from Bengal who asked him whether he would recommend to check violence in Bengal.
Harijan, April 20, 1947, p. 119; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, April 5.
Ibid, pp. 353; in reply to Mahadev Desai’s question; vide 14 above.
Ibid, p. 354; to Shaukat ali.
Young India, September 25, 1924, p. 314.
Young India, October 23, 1924, p. 353; to Shaukat Ali, in a discussion of the fast.
Young India, September 25, 1924, p. 313.
ibid, p. 314.
Young India, October 23, 1924, p. 354; to Shakut Ali in a discussion of the fast.
Harijan, January 18, 1947, p. 523; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, January 12. Vide3 para 54, p. 238.
Ibid, p. 517; open letter ‘To the people of Gujarat’ New Delhi, January 14.
Ibid, p. 523.

Communal relations in free India > Equality of All
Young India, September 25, 1924, p. 312.
Harijan, November 16, 1947, p. 416; speech at prayer meeting. New Delhi, November 9. A refuge lady had written to Gandhiji suggesting celebrations for Diwali, the first after Independence.
Harijan, April 27, 1940, p. 101.
Harijan, July 27, 1947, pp. 250-1; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, July 13.
Harijan, June 8, 1947, p. 180; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi (prior to May 29) Vide para 43, p. 367.
Harijan, January 18, 1948, p. 517; open letter “to the people of Gujarat” , New Delhi January 14.

Communal relations in free India > Status of Muslim Minority
Harijan, July 27, 1947, p. 254; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, July 15.
Harijan, September 21, 1947, p. 335; speech at prayer meeting New Delhi, September 12.
Ibid, speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 13.
Harijan, September 28, 1947, p. 352; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 20.
Harijan, October 5, 1947, p. 354; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 22.
Ibid, p. 361; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, September 25.
Ibid, p. 362; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi September 26.
Harijan, October 12, 1947, p. 366; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, October 1.
Harijan, March 9, 1947, p.56; speech at prayer meeting, Vijayanagar, February 10.
Harijan, October 12, 1947, p. 368; Gandhiji was commenting on a correspondent’s letter which, in English translation, read;
“This is with reference to your many and continued appeals to treat Muslims as brothers and guarantee their safety so that they do not migrate from here to Pakistan- ‘A man was walking along one cold day, when he came across a snake lying frozen with the cold. Taking pity on the reptile, he picked it up and thinking to give it warmth, put it in his pocket. The warmth soon revived the snake and the first thing it did was to dig its poisonous fangs into his savior and kill him.”
Ibid, p. 372; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, October 4.
Harijan, January 25, 1948, p. 533; speech on the occasion of breaking his fast, January 18.
Harijan, February 1, 1948, pp. 5-6; comment on the observations of a young man who wrote about Muslims being potential fifth columnists.
Harijan, January 25, 1948, p. 534, speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi January 18.
Harijan, September 28, 1947, p. 339; address to Muslims,Daryaganj, New Delhi, September 19.
Harijan, November 30, 1947, p. 449; address to Sikhs on Guru Nanak’s birthday.
Harijan, December 14, 1947, p. 482; address to a gathering to Meos in Jesarah village, Gurugaon, December 9.
Harijan, January 4, 1948, pp. 495-6; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, December 22.
Harijan, May 25, 1947, p. 164; Gandhiji was commenting on a for expressed to him that Nationalist Muslims might suffer at the hands of the Muslim League after the British withdrawal.
Harijan, August 31, 1947, p. 304; speech at prayer meeting, Alipore, August 23.
Harijan, September 7, 1947, pp. 313-4; speech at prayer meeting, Calcutta, August 27, Nationalist Muslims had asked him : “You have expressed the opinion that the Nationalist Muslims should join the League. Then, does it imply that the Congress has now become a communal organization?”
  Harijan, March 30, 1947, p. 88; speech at prayer meeting, Khusrupur, March 15.
  Harijan, November 8, 1947, p. 399; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, October 27, Gandhiji was referring to the reported forcible evacuation of Muslims to Pakistan.
  Harijan, January 11, 1948, p. 506; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, December 29, 1947.

Communal relations in free India > Secular State
Young India, September 18, 1924, p. 310.
Harijan, July 6, 1947, p. 218; in a written, ‘silence day’ prayer message, New Delhi, June 23.
Harijan, August 31, 1947, p. 297, speech at prayer meeting Narkeldanga, West Bengal, prior to August 19.
Harijan, October 26, 1947, p. 383; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, October 15.
Harijan, November 2, 1947, p. 392.
Harijan, November 16, 19476, p. 423; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, November 13.
Ibid, p. 411; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, November 4.

Communal relations in free India > Religion and Nationalism
Young India, January 9, 1930, pp. 13-14
Harijan, June 29, 1947, pp. 214-5; in conversation with Khwaja sahib Abdul Masjid, New Delhi, prior to June 18.
Harijan, December 7. 1947, p. 452.
Ibid, p. 459; speech at prayer meeting New Delhi, November 28.
‘Harijan, March 16, 1947, p. 63; speech at Kamalpur, February 21. Gandhiji was replying to the question put to him: “Should religious instruction form part of the school curriculum as approved by the State? Do you favour separate school for children belonging to different denominations for facility of religious instruction? Or, should religious instruction be left in the hands of private bodies? If so, do you think it is right for the state to subsidize such bodies?”
Harijan, March 23, 1947 p. 76; E. W. Aryanayaam of the Hindustani Talimi sangh had sent Gandhiji a cutting from the Hindustani Standard of February 19 reporting Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad’s interview on the subject of religious instruction. The relevant extract from the report read;
“In India, emphasis on religion has been and is greater than in other countries. Not only the past tradition of India but also the present temper of the people tends to emphasize the importance of religious instruction. If Government decides that religious instruction should be included in education, it seems imperative that the religious instruction should be of the best type.
“Religious instruction often imparted in India in private institutions is of a kind which, instead of broadening the outlook and inculcating a spirit of toleration and goodwill to all men, produces exactly the opposite results. It is likely that under State supervision even denominational teaching can be imparted in amore liberal spirit than under private control. The aim of all religious teaching should be to make men more tolerant and broad minded, and it is my opinion that this can be more effectively done if the State takes charge of the question than if it is left to private initiative.” In the letter Gandhij prefaced his opinion on the subject by saying categorically “that it (the above view)is inconsistent with the line followed by the Hindustani Talimi Singh”.
Harijan December 7, 1947, p. 459; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi. November 28.

Communal relations in free India > Religious Festivals
Harijan, March 2, 1947, p. 74; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, March 6. Gandhiji was asked how Holi, falling on the next day out to be celebrated.
Harijan, November 2, 1947, p. 391; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, October22, Gandhiji spoke with reference to the approaching Diwali and Bakr-Id festivals.
Harijan, November 16, 1947, p. 416; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, November 11.

Communal relations in free India > Synthesis of Culture
Harijan, May 4, 1940, p. 115.
Harijan, November 2, 1947, p. 392; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, October 22, Vide para 114, p. 395 for earlier part of the statement.

Communal relations in free India > Communal Life in Villages
Harijan, January 12, 1947, p. 490; in conversation with Dr. Amiya Chakravarty (prior to December 12, 1946).
Harijan, January 26, 1947, p. 518; speech at prayer meeting, Chandipur, December 28, 1946.
Harijan, January 4, 1948, p.500; speech at prayer meeting, Sammalka village, New Delhi, December 27, 1947.
Harijan, February 1 , 1948, p. 5; commenting on letter from a young man, Vide para 75, p. 250.

Communal relations in free India > India of My Dreams
Young India, October 6, 1930,p. 4.
Harijan, June 8, 1947, p. 177; in conversation with the Chinese Ambassador in India, Dr. Lochia Luen, at New Delhi (after May 25).
Ibid, p. 181; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, May 29. Gandhiji was retorting to a correspondent’s demand that he should retire to forest life unless he asked the Hindus to “answer sword with sword and arson” Gandhiji refused to deny his whole life and advocate the law of brute force in the place of the law of man.
Harijan, December 7, 1947, p. 453; replying to Madama Edmund Privat’s letter of August 27, 1947 (ibid).
Harijan, June 8, 1947, p. 177 vide 142 above. The Chinese Ambassador had talked of the havoc caused by the war in China, and raised the question as to what line Asiatic countries would follow.
Harijan, October 5, 1947, p. 354; speech at prayer meeting, New Delhi, september22.
Harijan, January 18, 1947, p. 526; speaking on the way on the day of his final fast, at a prayer meeting, New Delhi, January 14. The verse under reference is inscribed on the walls of the Dewan-i-Am of the Red Fort in Delhi.