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CHRONOLOGY > CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS > Beginning in South Africa
Year
Month
Date
Event
1912
March
16
Commends Gokhale’s attempts for abolition of indenture system.
September
12
Phoenix Trust is set up.
October
22
Accompanies Gokhale, on tour of South Africa, Laurenco Marques, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Gives up European dress and milk and restricts himself to diet of fresh and dried fruit.
1913
January
18
Refers in Indian Opinion to the possibility of return home to India by mid-year.
March
14
Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle’s Supreme Court judgment.
30
Indians in mass meeting protest against Searle judgment.
April
12
In Indian Opinion draws attention to new Immigration Bill’s failure to fulfill terms of Provisional Settlement of 1911. Kasturba decides to join Passive Resistance struggle.
May
19
Warns Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief.
June
7
Idea of return to India deferred in view of stringent application of discriminatory laws and likely resumption of Satyagraha.
28
Expresses readiness for negotiations.
September
13
Announces negotiations "proved abortive".
15
Passive Resistance is revived.
16
Kasturba is arrested.
October
17
Visits Newcastle; urges indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of 3 tax.
3000 miners strike.
24
Proposes ‘March’ into Transvaal.
28
‘March’ from Newcastle begins.
30
Reaches Charlestown.
November
3
Announces ‘March’ into Transvaal to court arrest.
5
Telephones Smuts seeking assurance of repeal of 3 tax.
6
Leads ‘ Great March’.
7
At Volksrust, released on bail; rejoin Marchers.
8
Arrested at Standerton; released on recognizance; ‘March’ continues.
9
Arrested at Teakworth, taken to Balfour.
10
Takes ‘one meal a day’ pledge till repeal of tax.
11
Sentence, at Dundee, to 9 months’ rigorous imprisonment.
13
Removed to Volksrust gaol.
14
Sentenced to 3 months on fresh count at Volksrust
December
18
Released unconditionally; from time of release till settlement take only one meal a day and puts on indentured labourer’s dress.
1914
January
13,16
Interviews Smuts, submits proposals.
22
Suspends satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
Fourteen days’ penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Farm.
June
Indian Relief Act is passed.
July
18
Sails for England, en route to India.
August
4
Reaches London.
Raises Indian Volunteer Corps
October
Volunteer Corps on duty.
Offers satyagraha over administrative interference in corps.
December
19
Sails for India.
1915
January
9
Reaches India
Awarded Kaiser-i-Hind Gold Medal for Ambulance services.
May
20
Founds Satyagraha Ashram (later known as Sabarmati Ashram after the name of the river) at Ahmedabad.
1915-16
Tours India and Burma, travelling 3rd class on the railways.
1917
Successfully agitates against indentured Indian emigration; idea of making use of spinning-wheel to produce handmade cloth on large scale takes root in his mind.
April
Goes to Champaran (Bihar) to investigate conditions of labour in indigo plantations; arrested and later released; appointed by Bihar Government as member of committee set up to inquire into ryots’ grievances.
1918
Jan-March
Takes up cause of textile labourers of Ahmedabad and fasts to secure amicable settlement of dispute; initiates satyagraha in Kaira District (Bombay) to secure suspension of revenue assessment on failure of crops.
April
27
Attends Viceroy’s War Conference at Delhi and addresses it in Hindustani; subsequently tours Kaira District to raise recruits for army.
1919
February
28
Signs Satyagraha Pledge to secure withdrawal of Rowlatt Bills.
April
6
Inaugurates all-India satyagraha movement; countrywide hartal.
8-11
Arrested on way to Delhi for refusal to comply with order not to enter Punjab; escorted back to Bombay; outbreaks of violence in several towns.
13
Jallianwala Bagh tragedy at Amritsar, troops firing on an unarmed crowd and killing over 400. Addresses public meeting near Sabarmati Ashram and declares three days’ penitential fast.
14
Confesses at Nadiad his ‘Himalayan miscalculation’ regarding satyagraha martial law declared in Punjab.
18
Suspends satyagraha.
September
Assumes editorship of the Gujarati monthly, Navajivan, later published weekly in Hindi also.
October
Assumes editorship of the English weekly, Young India; joins non-official committee of inquiry into official excesses in Punjab.
November
24
Presides over All-India Khilafat Conference at Delhi.
December
Advises acceptance of Montague-Chelmsford Reforms by Congress at Amritsar.
1920
January
Leads deputation to Viceroy to press on British Government not to deprive Sultan of Turkey (who was also Khalifa of Muslims) of his suzerainty over Holy Places of Islam.
August
1
Addresses letter to Viceroy surrendering Kaiser-I-Hind Medal, Zulu War Medal and Boer War Medal.
September
Special session of Indian National Congress at Calcutta accepts his programme of non-co-operation to secure redress of Punjab and Khilafat wrongs.
November
Founds Gujarat Vidyapith at Ahmedabad.
December
Nagpur Congress session adopts his resolution declaring object of Congress to be attainment of Swaraj by the people of India by all legitimate and peaceful means.
1921
April
Launches programme of enlisting a crore of members in Congress, raising a crore of rupees for Tilak Swaraj Fund and setting up 20 lakhs of charkhas in the country in furtherance of national constructive movement.
August
Leads campaign for complete boycott of foreign cloth and lights monster bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay.
December
Invested with full dictatorial powers by Congress session at Ahmedabad.
1922
February
1
Gives notice to Viceroy of intention to launch satyagraha campaign in Bardoli (Gujarat).
5
Following Chauri Chaura (U.P.) tragedy, in which 21 police constables and one sub-inspector were burnt to death by a mob, fasts for five days and abandons plan of satyagraha movement.
March
10
Arrested for sedition at Sabarmati and sentenced (March 18) to six years’ imprisonment.
1924
Jan-Feb
Operated on for appendicitis in Sassoon Hospital, Poona (Jan. 12) and released on Feb. 5
April
Resumes editorship of Young India and Navajivan.
September
18
Begins 21 days’ fast for Hindu-Muslim unity.
December
Presides over Congress session at Belgaum.
1925
September
Founds All-India Spinners’ Association.
November
Seven days’ vicarious fast for misdeeds of Ashram inmates.
Commences writing his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth.
1927
November
Visits Ceylon.
1928
December
Moves resolution at Calcutta Congress session in favour of Independence if Dominion Status is not granted by end of 1929.
1929
December
At his instance Lahore Congress session declares that Swaraj in Congress creed shall mean Purna Swaraj (complete independence).
1930
February
Appointed by A.I.C.C. as Congress Disobedience movement.
March
2
Addresses letter to Viceroy intimating his intention to break Salt law if Congress demands are not conceded.
12
Commences march to Dandi sea-beach, where he ceremoniously picks up salt (April 6).
May
5
Arrested and imprisoned without trial; hartal all over India; over 100,000 are jailed before close of year.
1931
January
26
unconditionally released from prison.
Feb-March
Has series of talks with Viceroy resulting in Irwin-Gandhi Pact.
August
29
Sails for England as sole Congress delegate to Second Round Table Conference.
Sept-Dec
Attends sessions of Conference.
December
5
Leaves England for India.
28
Lands in Bombay.
1932
January
4
Arrested and imprisoned without trial.
September
20
Commences ‘fast unto death’ in jail to secure abolition of separate electorates for Harijans in Communal Award.
26
Breaks fast on Government of India’s acceptance of his demand regarding Harijans.