Beginning in South Africa

Early Life             Back in India

Year

Month

Date

Event

1912

March

16

Commends Gokhale’s attempts for abolition of indenture system.

 

September

12

Phoenix Trust is set up.

 

October

22

Accompanies Gokhale, on tour of South Africa, Laurenco Marques, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Gives up European dress and milk and restricts himself to diet of fresh and dried fruit.

1913

January

18

Refers in Indian Opinion to the possibility of return home to India by mid-year.

 

March

14

Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle’s Supreme Court judgment.

 

30

Indians in mass meeting protest against Searle judgment.

 

April

12

In Indian Opinion draws attention to new Immigration Bill’s failure to fulfill terms of Provisional Settlement of 1911. Kasturba decides to join Passive Resistance struggle.

 

May

19

Warns Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief.

 

June

7

Idea of return to India deferred in view of stringent application of discriminatory laws and likely resumption of Satyagraha.

 

28

Expresses readiness for negotiations.

 

September

13

Announces negotiations "proved abortive".

 

15

Passive Resistance is revived.

 

16

Kasturba is arrested.

 

October

17

Visits Newcastle; urges indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of 3 tax.
3000 miners strike.

 

24

Proposes ‘March’ into Transvaal.

 

28

‘March’ from Newcastle begins.

 

30

Reaches Charlestown.

November

3

Announces ‘March’ into Transvaal to court arrest.

 

5

Telephones Smuts seeking assurance of repeal of 3 tax.

 

6

Leads ‘ Great March’.

 

7

At Volksrust, released on bail; rejoin Marchers.

 

8

Arrested at Standerton; released on recognizance; ‘March’ continues.

 

9

Arrested at Teakworth, taken to Balfour.

 

10

Takes ‘one meal a day’ pledge till repeal of tax.

 

11

Sentence, at Dundee, to 9 months’ rigorous imprisonment.

 

13

Removed to Volksrust gaol.

 

14

Sentenced to 3 months on fresh count at Volksrust.

 

December

18

Released unconditionally; from time of release till settlement take only one meal a day and puts on indentured labourer’s dress.

1914

January

13,16

Interviews Smuts, submits proposals.

 

22

Suspends satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
Fourteen days’ penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Farm.

 

June

Indian Relief Act is passed.

 

July

18

Sails for England, en route to India.

 

August

4

Reaches London.
Raises Indian Volunteer Corps

 

October

Volunteer Corps on duty.
Offers satyagraha over administrative interference in corps.

 

December

19

Sails for India.

1915

January

9

Reaches India
Awarded Kaiser-i-Hind Gold Medal for Ambulance services.

 

May

20

Founds Satyagraha Ashram (later known as Sabarmati Ashram after the name of the river) at Ahmedabad.

1915-16

Tours India and Burma, travelling 3rd class on the railways.

1917

Successfully agitates against indentured Indian emigration; idea of making use of spinning-wheel to produce handmade cloth on large scale takes root in his mind.

 

April

Goes to Champaran (Bihar) to investigate conditions of labour in indigo plantations; arrested and later released; appointed by Bihar Government as member of committee set up to inquire into ryots’ grievances.

1918

Jan-March

Takes up cause of textile labourers of Ahmedabad and fasts to secure amicable settlement of dispute; initiates satyagraha in Kaira District (Bombay) to secure suspension of revenue assessment on failure of crops.

 

April

27

Attends Viceroy’s War Conference at Delhi and addresses it in Hindustani; subsequently tours Kaira District to raise recruits for army.

1919

February

28

Signs Satyagraha Pledge to secure withdrawal of Rowlatt Bills.

 

April

6

Inaugurates all-India satyagraha movement; countrywide hartal.

 

8-11

Arrested on way to Delhi for refusal to comply with order not to enter Punjab; escorted back to Bombay; outbreaks of violence in several towns.

 

13

Jallianwala Bagh tragedy at Amritsar, troops firing on an unarmed crowd and killing over 400. Addresses public meeting near Sabarmati Ashram and declares three days’ penitential fast.

 

14

Confesses at Nadiad his ‘Himalayan miscalculation’ regarding satyagraha martial law declared in Punjab.

 

18

Suspends satyagraha.

 

September

Assumes editorship of the Gujarati monthly, Navajivan, later published weekly in Hindi also.

 

October

Assumes editorship of the English weekly, Young India; joins non-official committee of inquiry into official excesses in Punjab.

 

November

24

Presides over All-India Khilafat Conference at Delhi.

 

December

Advises acceptance of Montague-Chelmsford Reforms by Congress at Amritsar.

1920

January

Leads deputation to Viceroy to press on British Government not to deprive Sultan of Turkey (who was also Khalifa of Muslims) of his suzerainty over Holy Places of Islam.

 

August

1

Addresses letter to Viceroy surrendering Kaiser-I-Hind Medal, Zulu War Medal and Boer War Medal.

 

September

Special session of Indian National Congress at Calcutta accepts his programme of non-co-operation to secure redress of Punjab and Khilafat wrongs.

 

November

Founds Gujarat Vidyapith at Ahmedabad.

 

December

Nagpur Congress session adopts his resolution declaring object of Congress to be attainment of Swaraj by the people of India by all legitimate and peaceful means.

1921

April

Launches programme of enlisting a crore of members in Congress, raising a crore of rupees for Tilak Swaraj Fund and setting up 20 lakhs of charkhas in the country in furtherance of national constructive movement.

 

August

Leads campaign for complete boycott of foreign cloth and lights monster bonfire of foreign cloth in Bombay.

 

December

Invested with full dictatorial powers by Congress session at Ahmedabad.

1922

February

1

Gives notice to Viceroy of intention to launch satyagraha campaign in Bardoli (Gujarat).

 

5

Following Chauri Chaura (U.P.) tragedy, in which 21 police constables and one sub-inspector were burnt to death by a mob, fasts for five days and abandons plan of satyagraha movement.

 

March

10

Arrested for sedition at Sabarmati and sentenced (March 18) to six years’ imprisonment.

1924

Jan-Feb

Operated on for appendicitis in Sassoon Hospital, Poona (Jan. 12) and released on Feb. 5

 

April

Resumes editorship of Young India and Navajivan.

 

September

18

Begins 21 days’ fast for Hindu-Muslim unity.

 

December

Presides over Congress session at Belgaum.

1925

September

Founds All-India Spinners’ Association.

 

November

Seven days’ vicarious fast for misdeeds of Ashram inmates.
Commences writing his autobiography, The Story of My Experiments with Truth.

1927

November

Visits Ceylon.

1928

December

Moves resolution at Calcutta Congress session in favour of Independence if Dominion Status is not granted by end of 1929.

1929

December

At his instance Lahore Congress session declares that Swaraj in Congress creed shall mean Purna Swaraj (complete independence).

1930

February

Appointed by A.I.C.C. as Congress Disobedience movement.

 

March

2

Addresses letter to Viceroy intimating his intention to break Salt law if Congress demands are not conceded.

 

12

Commences march to Dandi sea-beach, where he ceremoniously picks up salt (April 6).

 

May

5

Arrested and imprisoned without trial; hartal all over India; over 100,000 are jailed before close of year.

1931

January

26

unconditionally released from prison.

 

Feb-March

Has series of talks with Viceroy resulting in Irwin-Gandhi Pact.

 

August

29

Sails for England as sole Congress delegate to Second Round Table Conference.

 

Sept-Dec

Attends sessions of Conference.

 

December

5

Leaves England for India.

 

28

Lands in Bombay.

1932

January

4

Arrested and imprisoned without trial.

 

September

20

Commences ‘fast unto death’ in jail to secure abolition of separate electorates for Harijans in Communal Award.

 

26

Breaks fast on Government of India’s acceptance of his demand regarding Harijans.

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