Balasundaram's case brought me into touch with the indentured Indians. What impelled me, however, to make a deep study of their condition was the campaign for bringing them under special heavy taxation.
In the same year, 1894, the Natal Government sought to impose an annual tax
of £25 on the indentured Indians. The proposal astonished me. I put
the matter before the Congress for discussion, and it was
immediately resolved to organize the necessary opposition.
At the outset I must explain briefly the genesis of the tax.
About the year 1860 the Europeans in Natal, finding that there was
considerable scope for sugar-cane cultivation, felt themselves in
need of labour. Without outside labour the cultivation of cane and
the manufacture of sugar were impossible, as the Natal Zulus were
not suited to this form of work. The Natal Government therefore
corresponded with the Indian Government, and secured their
permission to recruit Indian labour. These recruits were to sign an
indenture to work in Natal for five years, and at the end of the
term they were to be at liberty to settle there and to have full
rights of ownership of land. Those were the inducements held out to
them for the whites then had looked forward to improving their
agriculture by the industry of the Indian labourers after the term
of their indentures had expired.
But the Indians gave more than had been expected of them. They grew
large quantities of vegetables. They introduced a number of Indian
varieties and made it possible to grow the local varieties cheaper.
They also introduced the mango. Nor did their enterprise stop at
agriculture. They entered trade. They purchased land for building,
and many raised themselves from the status of labourers to that of
owners of land and houses. Merchants from India followed them and
settled there for trade. The late Sheth Abubakar Amod was first
among them. He soon built up an extensive business.
The white traders were alarmed. When they first welcomed the Indian
labourers, they had not reckoned with their business skill. They
might be tolerated as independent agriculturists, but their
competition in trade could not be brooked.
This sowed the seed of the antagonism to Indians. Many other factors
contributed to its growth. Our different ways of living, our
simplicity, our contentment with small gains, our indifference to
the laws of hygiene and sanitation, our slowness in keeping our
surroundings clean and tidy, and our stinginess in keeping our
houses in good repair – all these combined with the difference in
religion, contributed to fan the flame of antagonism. Through
legislation this antagonism found its expression in the
disfranchising bill and the bill to impose a tax on the indentured
Indians. Independent of legislation a number of pinpricks had
already been started.
The first suggestion was that the Indian labourers should be
forcibly repatriated, so that the term of their indentures might
expire in India. The Government of India was not likely to accept
the suggestion. Another proposal was therefore made to the effect
1. the indentured labourer should return to India on the expiry of his indenture; or that
2. he should sign a fresh indenture every two years, an increment being given at each renewal; and that
3. in the case of his refusal to return to India or renew the indenture he should pay an annual tax of £25.
A deputation composed of Sir Henry Binns and Mr. Mason was sent to
India to get the proposal approved by the Government there. The
Viceroy at that time was Lord Elgin. He disapproved of the £25 tax,
but agreed to a poll tax of £3. I thought then, as I do even now,
that this was a serious blunder on the part of the Viceroy. In
giving his approval he had in no way thought of the interests of
India. It was no part of his duty thus to accommodate the Natal
Europeans. In the course of three or four years an indentured labourer with his wife and each male child over 16 and female child
over 13 came under the impost. To levy a yearly tax of £12 from a
family of four – husband, wife and two children – when the average
income of the husband was never more than 14s. a month, was
atrocious and unknown anywhere else in the world.
We organized a fierce campaign against this tax. If the Natal Indian
Congress had remained silent on the subject, the Viceroy might have
approved of even the £25 tax. The reduction from £25 to £3 was
probably due solely to the Congress agitation. But I may be mistaken
in thinking so. It may be possible that the Indian Government had
disapproved of the £25 tax from the beginning and reduced it to £3,
irrespective of the opposition from the Congress. In any case it was
a breach of trust on the part of the Indian Government. As trustee
of the welfare of India, the Viceroy ought never to have approved of
this inhuman tax.
The Congress could not regard it as any great achievement to have
succeeded in getting the tax reduced from £25 to £3. The regret was
still there that it had not completely safeguarded the interests of
the indentured Indians. It ever remained its determination to get
the tax remitted, but it was twenty years before the determination was
realized. And when it was realized, it came as a result of the labours of not only the Natal Indians but of all the Indians in
South Africa. The breach of faith with the late Mr. Gokhale became
the occasion of the final campaign, in which the indentured Indians
took their full share, some of them losing their lives as a result
of the firing that was resorted to, and over ten thousand suffering
But truth triumphed in the end. The sufferings of the Indians were
the expression of that truth. Yet it would not have triumphed except
for unflinching faith, great patience, and incessant effort. Had the
community given up the struggle, had the Congress abandoned the
campaign and submitted to the tax as inevitable, the hated impost
would have continued to be levied from the indentured Indians until
this day, to the eternal shame of the Indians in South Africa and of
the whole of India.