My object was to inquire into the condition of the Champaran agriculturists and understand their grievances against the indigo planters. For this purpose it was necessary that I should meet thousands of the ryots. But I deemed it essential, before starting on my inquiry, to know the planters' side of the case and see the Commissioner of the Division. I sought and was granted appointments with both.
The Secretary of the Planters' Association told me
plainly that I was an outsider and that I had no business to come
between the planters and their tenants, but if I had any
representation to make, I might submit it in writing. I politely
told him that I did not regard myself as an outsider, and that I had
every right to inquire into the condition of the tenants if they
desired me to do so.
The Commissioner, on whom I called, proceeded to bully me, and
advised me forthwith to leave Tirhut.
I acquainted my co-workers with all this, and told them that there
was a likelihood of Government stopping me from proceeding further,
and that I might have to go to jail earlier than I had expected, and
that, if I was to be arrested, it would be best that the arrest
should take place in Motihari or if possible in Bettiah. It was
advisable, therefore, that I should go to those place as early as
Champaran is a district of the Tirhut division and Motihari is its
headquarters. Rajkumar Shukla's place was in the vicinity of Bettiah,
and the tenants belonging to the kothis in its neighbourhood were
the poorest in the district. Rajkumar Shukla wanted me to see them
and I was equally anxious to do so.
So I started with my co-workers for Motihari the same day. Babu
Gorakh Prasad harboured us in his home, which became a caravanserai.
It could hardly contain us all. The very same day we heard that
about five miles from Motihari a tenant had been ill-treated. It was
decided that, in company with Babu Dharanidhar Prasad, I should go
and see him the next morning, and we accordingly set off for the
place on elephant's back. An elephant, by the way, is about as
common in Champaran as a bullock-cart in Gujarat. We had scarcely
gone half when a messenger from the Police Superintendent overtook
us and said that the latter had sent his compliments. I saw what he
meant. Having left Dharanidharbabu to proceed to the original
destination, I got into the hired carriage which the messenger had
brought. He then served on me a notice to leave Champaran, and drove
me to my place. On his asking me to acknowledge the service of the
notice, I wrote to the effect that I did not propose to comply with
it and leave Champaran till my inquiry was finished. Thereupon I
received a summons to take my trial the next day for disobeying the
order to leave Champaran.
I kept awake that whole night writing letters and giving necessary
instructions to Babu Brajkishore Prasad.
The news of the notice and the summons spread like wildfire, and I
was told that Motihari that day witnessed unprecedented scenes.
Gorakhbabu's house and the court house overflowed with men.
Fortunately I had finished all my work during the night and so was
able to cope with the crowds. My companions proved the greatest help.
They occupied themselves with regulating the crowds, for the latter
followed me wherever I went.
A sort of friendliness sprang up between the officials – Collector,
Magistrate, Police Superintendent – and myself. I might have legally
resisted the notices served on me. Instead I accepted them all, and
my conduct towards the officials was correct. They thus saw that I
did not want to offend them personally, but that I wanted to offer
civil resistance to their orders. In this way they were put at ease,
and instead of harassing me they gladly availed themselves of my and
my co-workers' co-operation in regulating the crowds. But it was an
ocular demonstration to them of the fact that their authority was
shaken. The people had for the moment lost all fear of punishment
and yielded obedience to the power of love which their new friend
It should be remembered that no one knew me in Champaran. The
peasants were all ignorant. Champaran, being far up north of the
Ganges, and right at the foot of the Himalayas in close proximity to
Nepal, was cut off from the rest of India. The Congress was
practically unknown in those parts. Even those who had heard the
name of the Congress shrank from joining it or even mentioning it.
And now the Congress and its members had entered this land, though
not in the name of the Congress, yet in a far more real sense.
In consultation with my co-workers I had decided that nothing should
be done in the name of the Congress. What we wanted was work and not
name, substance and not shadow. For the name of the Congress was the
bęte noire of the Government and their controllers – the planters.
To them the Congress was a byword for lawyers' wrangles, evasion of
law through legal loopholes, a byword for bomb and anarchical crime
and for diplomacy and hypocrisy. We had to disillusion them both.
Therefore we had decided not to mention the name of the Congress and
not to acquaint the peasants with the organization
called the Congress. It was enough, we thought, if they understood
and followed the spirit of the Congress instead of its letter.
No emissaries had therefore been sent there, openly or secretly, on
behalf of the Congress to prepare the ground for our arrival.
Rajkumar Shukla was incapable of reaching the thousands of peasants.
No political work had yet been done amongst them. The world outside
Champaran was not known to them. And yet they received me as though
we had been age-long friends. It is no exaggeration, but the literal
truth, to say that in this meeting with the peasants I was face to
face with God, Ahimsa and Truth.
When I come to examine my title to this realization, I find nothing
but my love for the people. And this in turn is nothing but an
expression of my unshakable faith in Ahimsa.
That day in Champaran was an unforgettable event in my life and a
red-letter day for the peasants and for me.
According to the law, I was to be on my trial, but truly speaking
Government was to be on its trial. The Commissioner only succeeded
in trapping Government in the net which he had spread for me.