I next went to Rangoon to meet Dr. Mehta, and on my way I halted at Calcutta. I was the guest of the late Babu Bhupendranath Basu. Bengali hospitality reached its climax here. In those days I was a strict fruitarian, so all the fruits and nuts available in Calcutta were ordered for me. The ladies of the house kept awake all night skinning various nuts. Every possible care was taken in dressing fresh fruit in the Indian style. Numerous delicacies were prepared for my companions, amongst whom was my son Ramdas. Much as I could appreciate this affectionate hospitality, I could not bear the thought of a whole household being occupied in entertaining two or three guests. But as yet I saw no escape from such embarrassing attentions.
On the boat going to Rangoon I was a deck passenger. If excess of
attention embarrassed us in Sjt. Basu's house, grossest inattention,
even to the elementary comforts of deck passengers, was our lot on
the boat. What was an apology for a bath room was unbearably dirty,
the latrines were stinking sinks. To use the latrine one had to wade
through urine and excreta or jump over them.
This was more than flesh and blood could bear. I approached the
Chief Officer without avail. If anything was lacking to complete the
picture of stink and filth, the passengers furnished it by their
thoughtless habits. They spat where they sat, dirtied the
surroundings with the leavings of their food, tobacco and betel
leaves. There was no end to the noise, and everyone tried to
monopolize as much room as possible. Their luggage took up more room
than they. We had thus two days of the severest trial.
On reaching Rangoon I wrote to the Agent of the Steamship Company,
acquainting him with all the facts. Thanks to this letter and to Dr.
Mehta's efforts in the matter, the return journey, though on deck was
In Rangoon my fruitarian diet was again a source of additional
trouble to the host. But since Dr. Mehta's home was as good as my
own, I could control somewhat the lavishness of the menu. However,
as I had not set any limit to the number of articles I might eat,
the palate and the eyes refused to put an effective check on the
supply of varieties ordered. There were no regular hours for meals.
Personally I preferred having the last meal before night fall.
Nevertheless as a rule it could not be had before eight or nine.
This year – 1915 – was the year of the Kumbha fair, which is held at
Hardvar once every 12 years. I was by no means eager to attend the
fair, but I was anxious to meet Mahatma Munshiramji who was in his
Gurukul. Gokhale's Society had sent a big volunteer corps for
service at the Kumbha. Pandit Hridayanath Kunzru was at the head,
and the late Dr. Dev was the medical officer. I was invited to send
the Phoenix party to assist them, and so Maganlal Gandhi had already
preceded me. On my return from Rangoon, I joined the band.
The journey from Calcutta to Hardvar was particularly trying.
Sometimes the compartments had no lights. From Saharanpur we were
huddled into carriages for goods or cattle. These had no roofs, and
what with the blazing midday sun overhead and the scorching iron
floor beneath, we were all but roasted. The pangs of thirst, caused
by even such a journey as this, could not persuade orthodox Hindus
to take water, if it was 'Musalmani.' They waited until they could
get the 'Hindu' water. These very Hindus, let it be noted, do not so
much as hesitate or inquire when during illness the doctor
administers them wine or prescribes beef tea or a Musalman or
Christian compounder gives them water.
Our stay in Shantiniketan had
taught us that the scavenger's work would be our special function in
India. Now for the volunteers in Hardvar tents had been pitched in a
dharmashala, and Dr. Dev had dug some pits to be used as latrines.
He had to depend on paid scavengers for looking after these. Here
was work for the Phoenix party. We offered to cover up the excreta
with earth and to see to their disposal, and Dr. Dev gladly accepted
our offer. The offer was naturally made by me, but it was Maganlal
Gandhi who had to execute it. My business was mostly to keep sitting
in the tent giving darshan and holding religious and other
discussions with numerous pilgrims who called on me. This left me
not a minute which I could call my own. I was followed even to the
bathing ghat by these darshan-seekers, nor did they leave me
alone whilst I was having my meals. Thus it was in Hardvar that I
realized what a deep impression my humble services in South Africa
had made throughout the whole of India.
But this was no enviable position to be in. I felt as though I was
between the devil and the deep sea. Where no one recognized me, I
had to put up with the hardships that fall to the lot of the
millions in this land, e.g., in railway travelling. Where I
was surrounded by people who had heard of me I was the victim of
their craze for darshan. Which of the two conditions was more pitiable,
I have often been at a loss to determine. This at least I know that
the darshanvalas' blind love has often made me angry, and more
often sore at heart. Whereas travelling, though often trying, has
been uplifting and has hardly ever roused me to anger.
I was in those days strong enough to roam about a lot, and was
fortunately not so known as not to be able to go in the streets
without creating much fuss. During these roamings I came to observe
more of the pilgrims' absent mindedness, hypocrisy and slovenliness,
than of their piety. The swarm of sadhus, who had descended there,
seemed to have been born to enjoy the good things of life.
Here I saw a cow with five feet! I was astonished, but knowing men
soon disillusioned me. The poor five-footed cow was a sacrifice to
the greed of the wicked. I learnt that the fifth foot was nothing
else but a foot cut off from a live calf and grafted upon the
shoulder of the cow! The result of this double cruelty was exploited
to fleece the ignorant of their money. There was no Hindu but would
be attracted by a five-footed cow, and no Hindu but would lavish his
charity on such a miraculous cow.
The day of the fair was now upon us. It proved a red letter day for
me. I had not gone to Hardvar with the sentiments of a pilgrim. I
have never thought of frequenting places of pilgrimage in search of
piety. But the seventeen lakhs of men that were reported to be there
could not all be hypocrites or mere sight-seers. I had no doubt that
countless people amongst them had gone there to earn merit and for
self-purification. It is difficult, if not impossible, to say to
what extent this kind of faith uplifts the soul.
I therefore passed the whole night immersed in deep thought. There
were those pious souls in the midst of the hypocrisy that surrounded
them. They would be free of guilt before their Maker. If the visit
to Hardvar was in itself a sin, I must publicly protest against it,
and leave Hardvar on the day Kumbha. If the pilgrimage to Hardvar
and to the Kumbha fair was not sinful, I must impose some act of
self-denial on myself in atonement for the iniquity prevailing there
and purify myself. This was quite natural for me. My life is based
on disciplinary resolutions. I thought of the unnecessary trouble I
had caused to my hosts at Calcutta and Rangoon, who had so lavishly
entertained me. I therefore decided to limit the articles of my
daily diet and to have my final meal before sunset. I was convinced
that, if I did not impose these restrictions on myself, I should put
my future hosts to considerable inconvenience and should engage them
in serving me rather than engage myself in service. So I pledged
myself never whilst in India to take more than five articles in
twenty-four hours, and never to eat after dark. I gave the fullest
thought to the difficulties I might have to face. But I wanted to
leave no loophole. I rehearsed to myself what would happen during an
illness, if I counted medicine among the five articles, and made no
exception in favour of special articles of diet. I finally decided
that there should be no exception on any account whatsoever.
I have been under these vows for now thirteen years. They have
subjected me to a severe test, but I am able to testify that they
have also served as my shield. I am of opinion that they have added
a few years to my life and saved me from many an illness.